Sensory receptors

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 17-05-16 10:03
What are the receptors in the retina of the eye called and what energy change do they detect?
Light sensitive cells (rods+cones). Detect light intensity and range of wavelengths.
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Where are the olfactory cells and what energy change do they detect?
Lining the inner surface in the nasal cavity. Detect presence of volatile chemicals.
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Where are the taste buds and what do they detect?
In tongue, hard palate, epiglottis, 1st part of oesophagus. Detect pressure on skin.
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What are the pressure receptors in the skin known as and what do they detect?
Pacinian corpsules. Detect pressure on skin.
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Where are the sound receptors and what do they detect?
In the cochlea (inner ear). Detect vibrations in the ear.
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What do the muscle spindles detect?
The length of muscle fibres.
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What do sensory receptors detect?
Changes in our surroundings.
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Why are the known as energy transducers?
They convert one form of energy to another.
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What is a change in the environment known as?
A stimulus.
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What are the specialised channel proteins in neurones specific to?
Either sodium or potassium ions.
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What can the gate on the channel proteins do?
Open or close the channel.
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What is the permeability when the gate is open?
Permeability of the membrane is increased.
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What happens to the permeability when the gate is closed?
It is reduced.
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Are the channels usually kept open or closed?
Usually closed.
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What pumps do nerve cell membranes also contain and what is the function of these?
Contain sodium-potassium ion pumps that actively transport 3Na+ sodium ions out of the cell and 2K+ potassium ions into the cell.
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What does this ion movement mean?
The inside of the cell is more negative than the outside of the cell (membrane is polarised).
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What produces the voltage?
The difference in charge.
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How is a nerve impulse created?
By altering the permeability of the nerve cell membrane to sodium ions.
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What happens as the sodium ion channels are opened?
The membrane permeability is increased and sodium ions can move across the membrane down their concentration gradient into the cell.
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What happens to the charge inside the cell and what is this caused?
Inside of the cell becomes less negative compared to the outside. This is called depolarisation.
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What is a generator potential?
A small change in potential caused by 1 or 2 sodium ion channels opening.
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What is the effect if the stimulus is larger?
More sodium ion channels will open.
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When will an action potential only be produced?
If the generator potential reaches a certain threshold.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are the olfactory cells and what energy change do they detect?

Back

Lining the inner surface in the nasal cavity. Detect presence of volatile chemicals.

Card 3

Front

Where are the taste buds and what do they detect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the pressure receptors in the skin known as and what do they detect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where are the sound receptors and what do they detect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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