Selman's Five Stages of Social Cognitive Development

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Stage 0
Socially Egocentric, age 3-6 years. Recognise self and others have different feelings but cannot reliably distinguish them.
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Stage 1
Social Information Role Taking, age 6-8 years. Can distinguish difference between feelings of self and others but cannot understand views of others.
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Stage 2
Self-Reflective Role Taking, age 8-10 years. Can 'step into another person's shoes' fully appreciating view but can only do one perspective at a time.
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Stage 3
Mutual Role Taking, age 10-12 years. Can step outside a two-person situation and imagine view of third impartial party.
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Stage 4
Societal Perspective Taking, age 12+ years. Aware that understanding others viewpoints isn't always enough to solve arguments. Social conventions needed to keep order.
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Interpersonal Understanding
Measured in Selman's earlier role-taking research. If we can take different roles it shows understanding of social situation.
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Interpersonal Negotiation Strategies
Develop skills in how to respond to what others think. E.g. asserting our position and managing conflict.
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Awareness of Personal Meaning of Relationships
Reflecting on social behaviour in the context of history and relationships.
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Application in Understanding Atypical Development
Those with ASD and ADHD struggle with perspective taking so beneficial in developing understanding+treatment. Pair therapy=increases social interaction. Good external validity-generalised to both ASD+ADHD.
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Cultural Differences in Perspective Taking
Allows us to compare different groups on perspective-taking ability. Keysar found young Chinese adults much better than Americans. Mainly biological but cultural input. Collectivist culture likely to be better.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Social Information Role Taking, age 6-8 years. Can distinguish difference between feelings of self and others but cannot understand views of others.

Back

Stage 1

Card 3

Front

Self-Reflective Role Taking, age 8-10 years. Can 'step into another person's shoes' fully appreciating view but can only do one perspective at a time.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mutual Role Taking, age 10-12 years. Can step outside a two-person situation and imagine view of third impartial party.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Societal Perspective Taking, age 12+ years. Aware that understanding others viewpoints isn't always enough to solve arguments. Social conventions needed to keep order.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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