Secularisation

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 30-05-13 17:17
what is secularisation?
declining influence of religion on society
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what is some evidence of secularisation?
declining church attendance - churches being converted; sunday school and baptisms declining; declining religious belief
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why might statistics about religious belief lack validity?
people may be reluctant to share their views; social desirability bias; defining 'belief' may mean different things to different people
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what did weber mean by rationalisation?
religious worldview is replaced by scientific and rational thought
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in medieval times, what did people think about god?
that he controlled events and humans could influence him through prayer
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how did the protestant reformation change this?
it brought a new view of god leaving the earth to its own devices
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how is this evidence of rationalisation?
prayer no longer made a difference and rational thought explained events
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what did this lead to
disenchantment
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what is this
the loss of magic and mystery of religious ideas
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how does bruce develop this?
we now have a technological worldview, where religious explanations are replaced by scientific ones
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what is structural differentiation?
where the church loses its traditional roles to specialist insitutions
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what has this led to?
disengagement
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what is this
the church becomes separated from the state
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what does this mean
that the church has little influence over social and political aspects of life
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what is religious pluralism and who came up with it?
there are many religions; Berger
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what does Berger argue the effect of this is?
there is no longer a sacred canopy which covers society with beliefs shared by all
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what has religious pluralism created?
a plurality of life worlds
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what is this
there are lots of different beliefs
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why is this an example of secularisation?
it undermines the credibility of the established religion
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how does berger argue against this?
it can actually stimulate interest in religion rather than lead to its decline
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what are the two things that Bruce argues religion can act as?
a means of cultural defence and cultural transition
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what is cultural defence?
religion becomes a focal point for the defence of national, ethnic or group identity
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what is cultural transition?
religion acts as support for those who moved to a different country or culture and can help new arrivals settle into the way of life of a new culture.
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why does bruce argue this is evidence of secularisation?
religion is used for reasons other than an expression of religious belief
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who studied the kendal project?
heelas and woodhead
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what did they find
They found a decline of the congregational domain – i.e. those who attend traditional Christian services and an increase of the holistic milieu – i.e. New Age spirituality.
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what did they suggest this is due to?
a subjective turn in our culture
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what is this
a move away from our duty and obeying a higher power with an emphasis on an individuals spirituality
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what does this suggest about traditional religions?
they are in decline
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what is postmodern society characterised by?
globalisation, the mass movement of people, changing identities and the development of information and communication technology.
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what do postmodernists argue about religion?
it is not declining, but changing
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what is believing without belonging
people no longer have to attend a place of worship to be religious
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what is vicarious religion?
where a small number of professional clergy practise religion on behalf of a much larger number of people
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what does herveiu-leger suggest?
we are consumers of religion and can go spirituality shopping and pick and mix religions
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what is spirituality shopping?
we can try out different religions to see which ones suit us
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what is pick and mixing?
picking and mixing different beliefs from different religions to create your own personal religion
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what does Lyon believe globalisation has done to religion?
it has become disembedded - removed from its original context
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what is an example of this?
televangelists take religion out of its context in a church and places it on TV
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what does lyon believe religion is a part of?
a sphere of consumption
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what does this mean?
people do not abandon religion but choose the parts that are right for them
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what has this led to
a decline in metanarratives
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what does Lyon argue about disenchantment?
we have seen a growth in re-enchantment, a growth of unconventional beliefs
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what does this suggest?
non-traditional religions have declined, but non-traditional religions are still important
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what is bruce's criticism?
it is a weak religion because there is little commitment from followers
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how do stark and bainbridge criticise the secularisation theory?
it's focused on Europe and ignores flourishing natures in the USA and elsewhere
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what assumption is religious market theory based on?
people are naturally religious and meets human needs, and people can make rational choices
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according to RMT, what does religion provide us with?
compensators
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what is this
they compensate our inability to gain real rewards and offers us supernatural rewards
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what cycle do stark and bainbridge believe religion is in?
a cycle of decline, revival and renewal - some religions decline, others grow
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how do religions operate?
like businesses selling goods, they must compete with each other to offer particular religious 'products'
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how does bruce criticise this?
religion is declining in the USA too
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how does norris and ingelhart criticise RMT?
religion remains popular in places with a monopoly of the truth, whereas participation is low in places that have religious diversity
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who came up with the existential security theory?
norris and ingelhart
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what is existential security?
survival is secure enough to be taken for granted
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where is survival not secure?
in poorer, third world countires
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what sort of societies have higher religiosity?
these poorer third world countries
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how can this explain different levels of religiosity between europe and the usa?
europe has higher levels of welfare, so the state takes care of those in need; whereas USA lacks this, and social inequality is greater there, hence a higher need for religion
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what did wilson believe church attendance was linked to
the american way of life- being a good american
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how does declining church attendance in the USA show that religion is becoming secular?
headcounts in churches are lower than the attendance statistics - they exaggerate
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what is secularisation from within?
religion has been 'psychologised' into a form a therapy, religion is only popular because it is less religious
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how does religious diversity in the USA show that religion is becoming secular?
it forced americans to conclude that there are alternative views of the truth
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Card 2

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what is some evidence of secularisation?

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declining church attendance - churches being converted; sunday school and baptisms declining; declining religious belief

Card 3

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why might statistics about religious belief lack validity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what did weber mean by rationalisation?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

in medieval times, what did people think about god?

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