Sectional tension

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What was the Missouri Compromise?
1819 Missouri applied join Union as slave. Slave and free states no longer balanced. 1820 compromise. Slave state Missouri admitted same time free state Maine. No slavery in Louisiana Purchase north latitude 36 degrees 30’. North pleased
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What was the slave power conspiracy?
1830s-40s abolitionists spread idea ‘slave power’ conspiracy government promote interest slaveholders expense non-slaveholders.
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What was the Calhoun doctrine?
oState right overrule modify federal law considered unconstitutional.
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What was the nullification crisis?
Crisis 1832-3 South Carolina nullified two tariffs. Jackson threatened use force and South Carolina backed down when no support other southern states. Jackson lowered tariffs.
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What was the 'Platform of the South?
February 1847 Calhoun series resolutions expressed opinion citizens right take ‘property’ any state or territory. Congress no rights place restrictions on slavery in territories. Said if north continued to ignore south no choice but to secede
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What was popular sovereignty?
Lewis Cass and Stephen Douglas 1857. Settlers decide whether not territory slaves. North wanted asap before slavery established. South wanted late decision with slavery recognised interim.
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Who won the 1848 election?
Zachary Taylor won 47.5% with 8/15slave and 7/15free.
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What was the 1850 Compromise?
Clay proposed in January 1850. California admitted as a free state. Utah and New Mexico organised as territories without slavery. Slave-trading to end in Washington DC.Tougher Fugitive Slave Law introduced.Texas to surrender disputed land to NM
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What was the Nashville Convention?
June 1850 South met but half didn’t show and rest had little enthusiasm for leaving Union. Secessionists in minority.
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When did President Taylor die?
July 1850. Vice-President Fillmore became President. Fillmore saved situation. He was a New York Whig sympathetic to South.
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What effect did Uncle Tom's Cabin have?
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Sold 300,000 copies in 1852 and 1million in the next 10years. • Supporters of slavery were furious and received hundreds of hostile letters. Thirty pro-slavery novels published to change peoples’ opinion.
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What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act propose?
Repealing ban on slavery and dividing it into Kansas and Nebraska. He basically got rid of the Missouri Compromise Nebraska was unsuited for plantations.Popular sovereignty would allow settlers to make their own decision
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Why did it create 'a hell of a storm'?
N thought he had given into S. Abolitionists attacked the plans as it gave the South the chance to gain more slave states. Saw it as proof of slave power conspiracy.South became more determined to pass. May 1854. 90% of S vote for, 64% N against
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Who won the 1852 election?
Franklin Pierce Democrat. Irish and German immigrants likely to support Democrats. Free Soil Party had returned to Democrats. Whigs were divided. Northerners wanted General Winfield Scott, South wanted Vice President Fillmore.
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What did the USA do to try to acquire Cuba?
1851 attempt to overthrow government failed. 1853-4 organised exhibition to capture Cuba but North opposed (Cuba was a slave state). Offered $130million to buy Cuba. Ostend Manifesto threaten to invade Spain
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Who were the Know-Nothings?
By 1850 many Northerners felt there was no party representing their view and looked around for new parties. Nativist society from New York in 1849. Put forward their own candidates in 1854
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What did the Know-Nothings want?
Tighter immigration. 21-year probationary period before coming American citizens. Against Catholics. Against Kansas-Nebraska Act. Protest against establishment.
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What was the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company?
Sponsored 1500 Northerners to settle in Kansas.
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What happened in the first Kansas vote?
March 1855 Kansas elected first territorial legislature. Many Southerners came over from Missouri for the day just to vote. Kansas voted pro-slavery (would have anyway) but the cheating incensed the North. The Lecompton gov voted in was pro slavery
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What was the Topeka government?
Free-soil or free-state government which denied the validity of the Kansas elections. They wanted all blacks, free or slave, out of Kansas
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What was'Bleeding Kansas'?
May 1856 pro-slavery group attempted to arrest free-state leaders at Lawrence. ‘Sacked’ Lawrence and burnt many buildings. John Brown, fervent abolitionist, and his sons murdered five pro-slavers at Pottawatomie Creek which sparked off other killing
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What was 'Bleeding Sumner'?
May 1856 Sumner made speech attacking Butler’s (Southern) views on Kansas. Brooks entered Senate and beat Summer with cane. Sumner retired for two years and claimed it was because he was badly injured. Sumner Northern martyr and Brooks south hero
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Who were the candidates in the 1856 election?
American Party- Fillmore, North American Party (split from AP)- support John Fremont, Republican- John Fremont and Democrat- James Buchanan
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How did the election show divisions?
During election were renewed fears for the safety of the Union. If Fremont and Republicans had won many Southern states might have seceded. Democrats encouraged fears that Republicans were rabid abolitionists. Fremont won 45% of north 1196 south vote
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Who was Dred Scott and why did he go to the Supreme Court?
Belonged to army surgeon and travelled to free state of Illinois, Wisconsin and Missouri. Thought he should be free. Case ended up in Supreme Court.
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How did Buchanan mess this up?
Buchanan claimed that he did not know the verdict but the Chief Justice was seen whispering to Buchanan before he made in inaugural address. Encouraged people to accept the decision
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What was the verdict of the Supreme Court?
March 1857. Scott had no right to sue for freedom as black Americans did not have the same rights as whites. Scott’s stay in Illinois didn’t make him free bc returned to Missouri. Stay in Wisconsin makes no diff bc Missouri Comp illegal
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Why did the verdict cause so much outrage?
Two Northern Justices disagreed. They argued that Constitution didn’t deny citizenship, Constitution gave Congress power to govern territories and Missouri Compromise was legal and constitutional. North outraged as slavery could expand anywhere
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What did Buchanan do well in his presidency?
1857 sent troops to Utah to install a new governor and force acceptance of American laws. Autumn 1857 after Mount Meadows massacre and Buchanan sent more troops to Utah leading to Young surrendering. Most Americans supported opposition to Mormons
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How did Buchanan deal with the Kansas situation?
Gov Geary told B to not support pro-slavers. B sent Walker. Feb 1857 constitution convention pro-s won bc free-staters didn't vote. B free-staters to blame +needed Southern votes. B told Congress to pass constitution but split party. Kansas vote agai
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What was the Panic of 1857?
Economic depression. American companies collapsed and mass unemployment in North. Democrats laissez-faire so President did nothing. Republicans capitalise on this. Soup kitchens, wanted higher protective tariffs blocked by Congress. Helped 1858 mide
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What were the Lincoln-Douglas debates?
Seven open-air debates in Illinois from August to October 1858. Many attended and all speeches reported in newspapers. Talked about slavery and race. Made Lincoln nationally known
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What happened at Harper's Ferry?
October 1859. Brown and 18 men federal arsenal at HF. Wanted to seize weapons and start slave revolt. Train pulled in and station master killed. Took refuge in engine house under siege by Robert E Lee. Refused to surrender but captured+executed
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What effect did John Brown's raid have?
Caused more division between North and South. South appalled as slave revolt organised by abolitionist and financed by North worst fear. Republicans feared violence of raid cost them support in 1860 election. Winter 1859-60 rumours of slave uprisings
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What was the pamphlet 'The South should govern the South' about?
Published 1860. Many southerners coming to conclusion that problem was not slavery but the North. Saw themselves as the ‘true’ Americans loyal to traditional values. Secession became emotional idea rather than practical or rational
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What did the South think of the North in 1860?
North not South that had become ‘peculiar’. North had urbanised, industrialised and absorbed large numbers of immigrants while South remained agricultural, Anglo-Saxon and loyal to roots. Southern visitors to North thought of it as ‘enemy’ territory
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Who were the 'fire-eaters'?
Southerners who wanted secession. Minority but many Southerners didn't want a Republican victory
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Why did the Democrats split?
South didn't support Douglas due to opposition to Lecompton constitution. Convention met April at Charleston, South Carolina most fire-eating state. North (outnumbered South) stopped promising to protect slaveholders. 50 Deep South delegates left
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Why was Lincoln likely to be the Republican candidate in 1860?
Main rival William Seward but he had many enemies. Seen as 'Honest Abe' (good as Democrats corrupt). Debates with Douglas national figure. Not known for any particular opinions so appealed to everyone. From key state Illinois
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Who was the Constitutional Unionist Party?
New party of ex-Whigs. Support of upper South. Main aim to weaken Lincoln’s support in lower North and deny a majority in electoral college. Candidate John Bell
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Who was the Northern Democrat candidate and what was their platform?
Stephen Douglas. Refused right of slaveholders in all territories, Popular Sovereignty
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Who was the Southern Democrat candidate and what was their platform?
John Breckinridge. Federal government to protect slavery in territories
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Who was the Republican candidate and what was their platform?
Abraham Lincoln. Higher protective tariffs, Homstead Act, northern trans-continental railway, anti-slavery but not interfere with slavery where it existed
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Who was the Constitutional Unionist candidate and what was their platform?
John Bell. Support Constitution as it was, remove issue of slavery from politics
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What does historian Harold claim was the reason for Lincoln winning?
Split of Democrat party. Relatively conservative – limited opposition
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What does historian Reynolds claim was the reason for Lincoln winning?
Split of Democrat Party
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What does historian Brogan claim was the reason for Lincoln winning?
As the Democrats were split, Republicans had the ball. Lincoln was from key state where the convention had been held. Popular candidate as low-born, good orator, honest, no enemies.
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What does historian Jenkins claim was the reason for Lincoln winning?
Democrats were split and almost certainty of Republican victory.
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What does historian Cook claim was the reason for Lincoln winning?
Democratic split. Targeted North – didn’t need Southern vote. Tariff’s popular with business owners. ‘Honest Abe’
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Why did Southern states secede?
Few s had met Lincoln/supporters and believed Democrat propaganda Mad abolitionist encouraging slave rebellions. Would stop expansion of slavery so slavery voted out of existence. Would be able to appoint supreme court judges. longstanding resentment
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When did southern states secede?
December 1860- February 1861. South Carolina first to go
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When was the Confederacy created?
4th Feb 1861. 50 delegates meet at Montgomery
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Who was in charge of the Confederacy?
9 February Jefferson Davis elected provisional President. He was well known champion of Southern rights but not fire-eater and worked to maintain national unity. Alexander Stephens (Georgia) Vice-President. Anti-secessionist
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Why was the Upper South reluctant to leave the Union?
Fewer slaves – less than 30% black. Many non-slaveholders not want to join slave-holding planter-dominated Confederacy. More economic ties with North. War most fighting would take place in Upper South. Referendums much closer in Up (e.gTennessee+NC)
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What did Buchanan do at this time?
Buchanan’s main concern avoid war so did nothing. As Northerner with Southern connections links with both sides and ideal person to negotiate compromise. Did call for Republicans adopt pro-South policies but leaders refused to discuss this
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What did Congress do?
Both Houses set up committees. Most Congressmen from South refused to attend but many (Northern Democrats and Upper South) wanted compromise.
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What did the Senate committee recommend?
Senate Committee suggested extending Missouri Compromise to Pacific to give South chance to extend, constitutional amendment protect slavery where existed, slave market in DC and compensation for lost slaves. Republicans rejected saw it as giving in
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What was the Peace Convention?
February Peace Convention in Washington. 133 attended, 21 states – some free and all Confederate ignored. Convention came up with similar proposals but rejected in Congress.
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How did the Civil War start?
Events at Fort Sumter trigger. 15 April Lincoln issued Call To Arms and asked 75,000 men for 90 days to put down ‘rebellion’.19 April ordered blockade to stop trading with Europe.
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What was the Second Wave of secession?
Virginia voted 88-55 to support South and then to secede. Virginian capital, Richmond became Confederate capital. May Arkansas and North Carolina joined. Tennessee in June.
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Which slave states stayed in the Union?
Delaware, Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky stayed in Union. Showed South not united and important effect on outcome of war.
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1830s-40s abolitionists spread idea ‘slave power’ conspiracy government promote interest slaveholders expense non-slaveholders.

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