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1. What happened in Safi (2003) and how is it different to Abdul - Hussain and others (1999) Why did HofL refuse defence?

  • D and others hijacked Afghan plane to escape Taliban. Defence- no other choice. No evidence of imminent threat, no prospect.
  • D and others hijacked Afghan plane to escape Taliban. Defence- no other choice. Prospect and not enough evidence of threat.
  • D and others hijacked Afghan plane to escape Taliban. Defence- no other choice. No prospect. Evidence of imminent threat.
  • D- Muslims fleeing Iraq, make it to Sudan but fear deportation to Iraq and torture and murder; hijack a plane. Defence allowed- harm not imminent. No prospect.
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Other questions in this quiz

2. What is the most authoritative case?

  • Hasan 2005 (Aggravated burglary- threats of harm to family if didn't commit crime) Conviction quashed
  • Hasan 2009 (Aggravated burglary- threats of harm to family if didn't commit crime) Conviction quashed
  • Hasan 2005 (Plane hijacking) Conviction quashed
  • Hasan 2005 (Aggravated burglary- threats of harm to family if didn't pay money)

3. What is the subjective test in Graham 1982 ?

  • Threats of imminent death or serious physical injury. Did D act the way he did because of threats? Threats must be serious (Conway 1989) and can be against stranger (Pommell)
  • Threats of imminent death or serious physical injury.
  • Did D act the way he did because of threats? Threats must be serious (Conway 1989) and can be against stranger (Pommell)
  • Threats of imminent death. Did D act the way he did because of threats?

4. Explain duress by threats

  • D is compelled to Act because of circumstances surrounding threats made by C
  • D is compelled to Act because of direct threats from C of harm to self or someone they are responsible for
  • D is compelled to Act because of threats from C of harm to himself
  • D is compelled to Act because of direct threats from C of harm to self

5. Explain association

  • Association with a crime because of being present with said offender
  • Association with a group who will put pressure on him
  • Association with a person or group whom he might put pressure on him to commit an offence
  • Association with a person who you had no knowledge of being associated with crime

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