Section 1: The nature and variety of living organisms

what eight characteristics do living organisms have
They require nutrition. They respire. They excrete their waste. They respond to their surroundings. They move. They control their internal conditions. They reproduce. They grow and develop
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what are the common features in a plant
These are multicellular organisms; their cells contain chloroplasts and are able to carry out photosynthesis; their cells have cellulose cell walls; they store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose
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name an example of a plant
Flowering plants, such as a cereal (for example maize), and a herbaceous legume (for example peas or beans)
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what are the common features in an animal
These are multicellular organisms; their cells do not contain chloroplasts and can't photosynthesise; they have no cell walls; they usually have nervous coordination and are able to move place; they often store carbohydrate as glycogen
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name an example of an animal
Mammals (for example humans) and insects (for example housefly and mosquito)
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what are the common features in a fungi
They can't photosynthesise; their body is organised into a mycelium made from thread-like structures called hyphae, which contain many nuclei; their cells have walls made of chitin; they feed by saprotrophic nutrition; store carbohydrate as glycogen
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name an example of a fungi
Mucor, which has the typical fungal hyphal structure, and yeast, which is single-celled
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what are the common features in a bacteria
Microscopic single-celled organisms; have a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm and plasmids; they lack a nucleus but contain a circular chromosome of DNA; some bacteria can carry out photosynthesis but most feed off other living or dead organisms
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name an example of a bacteria
Examples include Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a rod-shaped bacterium used in the production of yoghurt from milk, and Pneumococcus, a spherical bacterium that acts as the pathogen causing pneumonia
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what are the common features in a protoctists
Microscopic single-celled organisms. Some, like Amoeba, that live in pond water, have features like an animal cell, while others, like Chlorella, have chloroplasts and are more like plants. A pathogenic example is Plasmodium, responsible for malaria
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what is a pathogen
Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease. The body has several defence mechanisms to prevent pathogens from entering the body and reproducing there. They may include fungi, bacteria protoctist or viruses
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what are viruses
these are not living organisms. They are small particles; can reproduce only inside living cells; they infect every type of living organism; hey have no cellular structure but have a protein coat and contain one type of nucleic acid, either DNA/RNA
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name an example of a virus
tobacco mosaic virus that causes discolouring of the leaves of tobacco plants by preventing the formation of chloroplasts, the influenza virus that causes ‘flu’ and the HIV virus that causes AIDS.
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what are the common features in a plant

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These are multicellular organisms; their cells contain chloroplasts and are able to carry out photosynthesis; their cells have cellulose cell walls; they store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose

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name an example of a plant

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what are the common features in an animal

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name an example of an animal

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