SDME: Rivers and Coasts revision cards on Sustainable topics

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Why is flood hazard increasing?
1. Increasing building development on flood plains and 2. The growth of impermeable surfaces.
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How can risk of flooding be reduced in urban areas?
1. restricting development on flood plains. 2. Increasing the amount of permeable surfaces
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How can the amount of green space be increased in urban areas?
1.parks and landscapes 2.Planting vegetation along roads and rivers. 3. Developing green roofs on buildings.
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What are catchment flood management plans?
Strategies which look at whole river basins to reduce flood risks.
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Is catchment flood management sustainable? Why?
Yes, because it is no just responding to floods and is taking into account long term planning for the future and using the natural environment to do this.
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What are the 3 CFMP strategies?
1. Maintain river channels. 3.Use the natural flood plain. 3.Re-create rier channels in urban areas
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How do you manage river channels to reduce the risk of flooding ?
1. Weeds and silt are cleared to ensure river flow is not interrupted. 2. River banks maintained to reduce the risk of the bank collapsing
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How can we use the natural flood plain to reducing the risk of flooding?
1. Use of flood plain increased to store water during times of floods. 2.Stoareg ponds built to collect storm water and prevent nearby towns from flooding.
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How can we re-create river channels in urban areas to reduce the risk of flooding?
1. Number of concrete channels reduce by restoring urban rivers. 2. New river channels constructed with space to flood naturally.
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What uses do we have of the coast?
1. Industrial development. 2. Transportation 3. Recreational activities 4. Residential development 5. Nature conservation
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How does coastline provide a natural defence against flooding?
Provides and important buffer zone between the sea and the surrounding lowlands. Also coastal salt marshes and mangrove forests provide a natural barrier against storms, absorbing wave energy and providing a barrier against inland flooding.
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How does removing coastal wetlands increase the risk of flooding?
Salt marshes and mangroves are often removed to provide farming areas and land for development leaving nothing to absorb wave energy
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How can coastal areas be protected?
1. Hard engineering 2. Soft enginering
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What is meant by hard engineering?
Controlling the sea by building barriers between the sea and the land, or forces the waves to break before they reach the land by building artificial reefs.
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Why is hard engineering not sustainable?
Hard engineering create an artificial environment which is often an eyesore and requires on going maintenance which can be costly.
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What are gabions?
Wire cages filled with rocks and stacked to form a barrier against breaking waves.
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What is rip rap?
Large boulders pied up in front of cliffs or sea walls to protect them from erosion.
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What is a sea wall?
A concrete barrier that protects areas from wave attack and flooding. Curved sea walls deflect waves during high tides to reduce the risk of flooding.
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What are revetments?
Sloping ramps that race the sea and absorb the energy of breaking waves.
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What are off-shore breakwaters?
Rock structures that are built parallel to the coast. They force waves to break before they reach the shore
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What are groynes?
Wooden or concrete barriers built at right angles to the beach. They trap drifting sand and help to develop a wider beach.
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What is meant by soft engineering?
Engineering which works with the natural environment by protecting the beach.
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What is managed retreat?
It is allowing the sea to flood inland until it reaches higher land , where the natural shape f the land will prevent any further flooding.
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What is meant by sustainable management?
A coastline is managed in the long term without significant change to the environment or large ongoing maintenance costs.
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Why is managed retreat sustainable?
It is sustainable because, It will increase the amount of marsh and these act as natural defence against erosion and flooding. 2. It looks more attractive than hard engineering. 3. It can provide amenity value such as nature reserves.
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What are the economic adavantages of managed retreat?
It does not cost much money to maintain.
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What are the environmental advantages of managed retreat?
It can provide amenity value such as nature reserves.
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What are the social advantages of managed retreat?
It can provide amenity value such as nature reserves.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How can risk of flooding be reduced in urban areas?

Back

1. restricting development on flood plains. 2. Increasing the amount of permeable surfaces

Card 3

Front

How can the amount of green space be increased in urban areas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are catchment flood management plans?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Is catchment flood management sustainable? Why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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