SCLY3 Typologies

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  • Created by: abbie
  • Created on: 24-05-16 18:35
Church - Troeltsch
Large religious organisation, attempts to be universal, ideologically conservative - supporting the values and beliefs of those in a position of power in society, tied to the state, carry out important social functions, monopoly of religious truth
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Denomination - Troeltsch/Niebuhr
Formal organisations with a hierarchy of officials, draw members from all parts of society, tend to be conservative, not connected to the state, do not claim a monopoly of truth, not as demanding as sects but have some restrictions
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Sects - Troeltsch
Polar opposite to churches, much smaller organisations, not connected to the state, own norms and values, radical, charismatic leader, attract the poor and oppressed, high level of commitment, monopoly of truth
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Cults
Usually led by practitioners or therapists who claim to have special knowledge, tolerant of other beliefs, don't demand strong commitment from followers, members may drop out after they have gained the skill on offer, claims to improve lives
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Relationship to society - church, denomination, sect
Church - accept and affirm life in this world, denomination - generally accept norms and values, sect - reject norms and values
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Demands on members - church, denomination, sect
Church - do not have to demonstrate, denomination - some minor restrictions, sect - high commitment, may be expected to withdraw from life
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Tolerance - church, denomination, sect
Church - guard their monopoly of truth, denomination - does not claim monopoly (tolerant), sect - they possess a monopoly
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Type of organisation
Church - formal organisation with hierarchy of paid officials, denomination - smaller than a church but still a formal organisation, sect - charismatic leader, persuades others to follow
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World Rejecting NRMs - Wallis
Common with sects, beliefs are critical of the outside world, often seek radical change, members are expected to make a break with conventional life, members lives are controlled, highly disciplined, ascetic lifestyle, reputation for brainwashing
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World Accommodating NRMs - Wallis
Offshoots of an existing major church/denomination, neither accept nor reject the world as it is, they simply live with it, they are concerned with religious rather than worldly questions, members lead conventional lives
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World Affirming NRMs - Wallis
Lack the typical characteristics of a religion, promise followers success in mainstream goals such as careers and relationships, non-exclusive and tolerant of other beliefs/religions, offer spirituality and power, places few demands on members
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Sects and Cults - Stark and Bainbridge
Sects - small religious groups, which are an offshoot of an existing religion and are in high degree of tension with outside world, cults - small religious groups are either novel or based on a religion from another society
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Audience Cult
Little commitment from followers and often act as little more that a form of entertainment
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Client Cults
Offer services to followers who are seen as customers, they offer a way of enhancing life rather than an alternative lifestyle
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Cult Movements
Members may give up aspects of their life by living in a commune, they offer members a complete spiritual package
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Marginality
Wallis argued members of NRMs were marginalised from society, sects tend to draw their members from the poor and oppressed, offers religious explanation/justification for suffering
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Relative Deprivation
Wallis argued this may be a reason to turn to a sect for a sense of community and belonging, in today's society individuals may feel that they are spiritually deprived or that society lacks moral values
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Social Change
Bruce agrees stating secularisation of modern society is a reason why people join cults as they are less demanding, Wilson argues rapid social change undermines norms and values and in response to uncertainty people turn to sects for security
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Are sects short lived? FOR
Hard to maintain commitment and fervour, loss of charismatic leader, ideology destroys sects, changing status of sect members, impact of post modernity, mass suicides
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Are sects short lived? AGAINST
Life cycle of sects, socialisation of young, prevent denominalisation, change their appeal/services
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Sectarian Cycle - Stark and Bainbridge
Schism - tension builds between deprived members of a church who then break away, initial fervour - a charismatic leader, denominalisation - the fervour disappears, establishment - the sect becomes more world accepting, further schism
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Denomination or death - Niebuhr
Sects either die or become less and become a denomination - lack of commitment from 2nd generation, protestant ethic - sects that practice asceticism become prosperous and members then abandon world rejecting beliefs, death of a leader
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Established sects
Wilson - Controversialists eg. Evangelicals who aim to recruit large numbers and therefore grow rapidly into more formal denominations, Adventists eg. sects like Jehovah's Witnesses that have a separatism from the corrupt world
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Formal organisations with a hierarchy of officials, draw members from all parts of society, tend to be conservative, not connected to the state, do not claim a monopoly of truth, not as demanding as sects but have some restrictions

Back

Denomination - Troeltsch/Niebuhr

Card 3

Front

Polar opposite to churches, much smaller organisations, not connected to the state, own norms and values, radical, charismatic leader, attract the poor and oppressed, high level of commitment, monopoly of truth

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Usually led by practitioners or therapists who claim to have special knowledge, tolerant of other beliefs, don't demand strong commitment from followers, members may drop out after they have gained the skill on offer, claims to improve lives

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Church - accept and affirm life in this world, denomination - generally accept norms and values, sect - reject norms and values

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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