SCLY2-Sociologist studies

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 27-12-14 21:17
Ball-Parentocracy
Argues parentocracy is a myth and suggests marketisation makes it appear that all parents have the same freedom to choose which school to send their children to- this is not true
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Gerwitz-Capital
Argues middle class parents have more economic and cultural capital so can take advantage of the choices available e.g. can move into a good catchment area
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Douglas-Material Deprivation of class differences in educational differences
He found that a lack of educational resources, poor diet and 'unsatisfactory' housing conditions lowers school performanc
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Douglas-Cultural deprivation of class differences in educational differences
Argues that the working class was somehow 'deficient' as it encouraged immediate gratification and parents place less value on education and were less ambitious-e.g not attending parents evening
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Barry Sugarman-Cuktural deprivation of class differences in educational differences
Suggests other values related to the working class leading to lower achievement e.g.fatalism and present time orientation
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Bernstein-Cultural Deprivation of class differences in educational differences
Argues working class students because they are socialised into a restricted language code which does fit the elaborate code favoured by the education system and middle class students,
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Bourdieu-Econmic Capital of class differences in educational differences
Claims economic capital ensures that the middle class can buy educational success e.g.send their children to private schools
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Bourdieu-Cultural Capital of class differences in educational differences
Argues middle class students outperform working class as they have more cultural capital e.g. desired knowledge and tastes gained through trips to museums which equips them for educationa success
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Gillborn and Youndell-Teacher expectations & Attitudes for class differnences in educational achievement
Suggests some teachers label student based on stereotypical assumptions of their class backgrounds-Working class students labelled as disruptive,lacking motivation and of lower ability and put in lower sets, leading to self fulfilling prophecy,
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Becker-Teacher expectations & Attitudes for class differnences in educational achievement
Found pupils are judged on how closely they fit the image of the 'ideal pupil'-Pupils work, conduct and appearance were key factors influencing teacher judgements-middle class closer to 'ideal pupil'
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Hargreaves-Streaming and subcultures for class differnences in educational achievement
Found streaming is based on social class rather than abilty-He found that working class tend to be placed in 'bottom' sets and develop anti-school subcultures as a response to being labelled as a failure- It places a high value on trauncy, lateness
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Willis- Argument against streaming and subcultures for class differnences in educational achievement
Rejects argument that anti-school subcultures emerge as a response to labelling but as a prouct of workng class cuture which leads 'lads' to resist school
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Gillborn and Youndell-Educational Triage for class differnences in educational achievement
Argues schools categorise pupils into 'those who will pass anyway', 'those with potential' and 'hopeless cases'-Working class pupils often labelled as lacking ability and ignoree
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Mike Noon-Material Deprivation for ethnic differences in educational achievement
Sent identical letters to 100 UK companies under the nams 'Patel' nd 'Evans'- Companies were more encouraging towards the 'white' candidate
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Flaherty-Material Deprivation for ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Unemployment x3 higher for ethnic minorities than for whites, 15% of ethnic minorities live in households with overcrowded conditions comared with 2% of white people, Ethnic minority women more likely to be engaged in low-paid housework-1.50 per hour
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Daniel Moynihan-Cultural deprivationfor ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Many Afro-Caribbean households are headed by a single female parent which is argued can loer school performance as single parenthood offers few opportunities for parents to spend time with their chiod on educational matters
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MurrayCultural deprivation for ethnic differnences in educational achievement
High rate of single parents mean that black boys lack a posiive male role model leading to underachievement
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LutonCultural deprivationfor ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Indian family structures have been said to benefit children as adult uthority is similar to the way schools operate
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Khan-Cultural deprivation for ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Suggsts Asian families are stress ridden and control children too much,
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Wright-Teacher expectations & attitudesfor ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Found Asian pupils have a poor grasp of English and leave them out of class discussions and use childish kanguage
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Fuller--Teacher expectations & attitudesfor ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Found evidence that negative labelling doesnt always lead to negative stereotyping but some conformist year 11s used it as a motivtor to do well
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Troyna and Williams-ethnocentric curriculum for ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Described the national curriculum in British schools as ethnocentric because it gives priority to white culture and language
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Coard-ethnocentric curriculum for ethnic differnences in educational achievement
Suggests curriculum gives priorty to the study of English Literature, European History, European foreign language and Christianity- If black culture is discussed, it is seen as 'primitive'nwhich undmines black children's self esteem
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Kelly- Primary/early socialisation for gender differences in educational achievement?
She argued boys tend to grow up playing with construction toys such as mecanno which generates an early interesr in scientific based subjects,
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Browne and Ross- Primary and Early Socialisation for gender differences in educational achievement?
They believe children kearn to distinguish between male and female activities and tasks through their parents which makes children more confident engaging in their own gender related tasks,
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Murphy- primary/early socialisation for gender differences in educational achievement?
Found girls and boys interpret tasks differently- when asked to design a vehicle, boys desgined army and sports vehicles whereas girls designed family cars,
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Kelly- Gendered subject images for gender differences in educational achievement?
She observed about science: -textbooks rarely portray women, -fewer science teachers are female, -Male students tend to monopolise the equipment, -Teachers explain scientific terms using examples males are more likely to idenify with
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Colley- Gendered subject images for gender differences in educational achievement?
He noticed the masculinity surrounding ICT- working with machinee is part of the 'male gender domain' and the way it is taught is offputting for females,
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Sharpe- Changing expectations and ambitions for gender differences in educational achievement?
Found in 1970, girls valued marriage and brining up a family before a career and saw educational success as unfeminine,
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Becky Francis-Changing ambition and expectations for gender differences in educational achievement?
Asked girls now about their career ambitions and most had high aspirations and very few stated they saw their future in traditional female jobs,
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Mac en Ghail- Culture of Masculinity for gender differences in educational achievement?
Found macho lads felt working at school was seens as effeminate and had anti-school subcultures and underachieved,
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Mitsos and Browne-Changing employment markets for gender differences in educational achievement?
-Claim the expansion of female employment opportunities has made women more ambitious and vlue education more, -State this increase has led to. decrease in male jobs, especially semi-skilled and unskilled jobs leading to a crisis of masculinity,
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Mitsos and Browne- Attitudes towards education for gender differences in educational achievement?
Claim girls work harder, more conscientious, spend more time on homework, are better organised and more likely to meet deadlines than boys
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Mitsos and Browne-Teacher expectations/attitudes for gender differences in educational achievement?
-Found teachers have kower expectations of males (extended deadlines) and more tolerant of disruptive behaviour, -Argue teachers may not push boys to reach their full potential and self-fulfilling propechy occurs,
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Yougov- Shortage of male primary school teachers for gender differences in educational achievement?
His survey said the presence of male teachers mad them work harder and behave better,
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Durkheim-Functionalist explanations on the role and function of education
-He believes social solidarity is created by the education system being an agent of secondary socialisation which transmits norms and values and unites individuals, -He sees schools as societies in miniature as it prepares students for the workforce,
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Parsons- Functionalist explanations on the role and function of education
Believes education has universalistic values: 1) Bridge between family and wider society, 2)Socialises children into basic values of society, 3)Selects people for future roles in society,
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Davies and Moore- Functionalist explanation on the role and function of education
Suggested role allocation occurs in education which sifts and sorts people acording to their abilities so the most able gain high qualifications, suggesting the eduation system is meritocratic and there is room for social mobility,
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Marx and Engles- Marxist explanations on the role and function of education
They argue power in society is largely stemmed from wealth and those who owned the means of production formed a powerful ruling class. In Capitalist society, the proletariat are exploited by the bourgeoisie as they aren't paid the full value of work,
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Bowles and Gintis(2)-Marxist explanations on the role and function of education
-Argue that the education system is controlled by capitalists and serves their interests called Capitalist Schooling, -Argue role allocation is not based on meritocracy but social class,
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Chubb and Moe(2)-New Right explanations on the role and function of education
-Believe in Consumer choice so parents should shape the education system rather than the state and schools should have more autonomy, -Investigated achievements of 60,000 pupils from low income families- found they do 5% better at private schools,
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Stanworth- Feminist explanations on the role and function of education
Found education gives 4 messages to women : 1)Men are more important, 2)Boy's careers are more important -Boy's are cleverer, -Senior positions in education are disproportionately held by men
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Gerwitz-Capital

Back

Argues middle class parents have more economic and cultural capital so can take advantage of the choices available e.g. can move into a good catchment area

Card 3

Front

Douglas-Material Deprivation of class differences in educational differences

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Douglas-Cultural deprivation of class differences in educational differences

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Barry Sugarman-Cuktural deprivation of class differences in educational differences

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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