Scientific processes

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  • Created by: Laelle
  • Created on: 12-05-16 16:37
What is an aim?
a general statement of what you are planning to investigate
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What is a hypothesis?
a clear and precise statement predicting what will happen
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What is a directional hypothesis
predicts the difference between 2 conditions and the direction
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What is a non-directional hypothesis?
states that the conditions will differ but not specific (no direction)
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What kind of adjectives do directional hypothesis use?
more/less, higher/lower etc.
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What is a operationalized hypothesis?
One that is specific
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Example of operationalized hypothesis?
One group of participants will score higher on a memory test
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What is sampling?
the process of selecting a small sample of participants to study from the target population
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Why must a sample be representative?
so results from the sample can be generalised to the majority
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What is random sampling?
when every individual from the target population has an equal chance of being selected
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What is opportunity sampling?
when the researcher uses anybody available/in the area at the time of the study
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What is volunteer sampling?
when participants self-select/volunteer to be part of the research
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What is systematic sampling?
When every nth member of the target population is selected using a sampling frame
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What is stratified sampling?
When the makeup of the sample reflects the proportions of people from different groups in the target population
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What's a pilot study?
A small-scale trial run of the actual investigation
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Aim of pilot study?
To identify any potential issues and modify the procedure if necessary
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What is experimental designs?
The different ways participants can be organised into experimental conditions
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What is independent measures/groups?
Using different participants for each condition of an experiment
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What is repeated measures?
Using the same participants for each condition of an experiment
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What is matched pairs?
Using different but similar participants in each condition
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How are participants matched in matched pairs?
According to important characteristics that may affect performance
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What is observation design?
How the researcher intend to records their data
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What is an unstructured observation?
When the researcher/observer writes down everything they see, producing accounts rich in detail
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What is a structured observation?
When the researcher/observer uses a pre-determined system of assessing behaviour
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What do structured observations use?
Behaviour categories
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What are behaviour categories?
The target behaviour broken down into components that are observable and measurable
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What is event sampling in observations?
Counting the number of times a particular behaviour occurs in a target individual/group
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What is time sampling in observations?
Recording behaviour within a pre-established time frame
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What can closed questions be divided into in observations?
Likert scales, rating scales and fixed choice option
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What is a likert scale?
When respondents indicate their agreement to a statement using a scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree
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What is a rating scale?
When respondents use values to indicate their strength of feeling about a particular topic
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What is a fixed choice option?
When respondents select options that apply to them from a list of possible values
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What is a variable?
Something that can change
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What are 2 variables that psychologists are interested in?
Independent and Dependent
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What is the independent variable?
The variable that the researcher manipulates and to see its effect on the dependent variable
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What is the dependent variable?
The variable that is measured by the researcher. Any effect on the DV should be caused by the IV
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What is an operationalized variable?
A variable that can be measured
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What is an extraneous variable?
Any variable other than the IV that can have an effect on the DV
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What is a confounding variable?
A variable that can have an effect on the IV. It varies systematically with the IV
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Difference between extraneous and confounding variables?
Extraneous variables don't vary systematically with the IV
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What two types of extraneous variables are there?
Situational + Partcipant
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What are situational variables?
Variables connected with the research situatuion
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Examples of situational variables?
Location, Temperature, Distractions
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What are participant variables?
Variables concerned with individual differences of research participants
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Examples of participant variables?
Intelligence, Mood, Age, Health
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Card 2

Front

What is a hypothesis?

Back

a clear and precise statement predicting what will happen

Card 3

Front

What is a directional hypothesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a non-directional hypothesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What kind of adjectives do directional hypothesis use?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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