Science:B1

What is the normal blood pressure?
120/80mm Hg
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How can you reduce high blood pressure and maintain a normal one?
Doing regular aerobic exercise and having a healthy diet.
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What are 3 factors that lead to high blood pressure?
Excess weight, High stress levels, A diet with too much saturated fat, sugar and salt.
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How does having too much staurated fat increse blood pressure?
Leads to build up of Cholesterol, causing arteries to narrow,making the heart pump quicker.
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How does Carbon monxoide contribute to high blood pressure?
Takes the place of oxygen in haemoglobin so oxygen carrying capacity is reduced.
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What are the long term effects of high blood pressure?
Weaken blood vessels which eventually burst which could led to brain damage or a stroke if burst in the brain.
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What are the effects of low blood pressure?
Blood doesnt circulate efficently so parts of the bidy is deprived of glucose leading to dizziness, fainting, cold hands and feet.
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Name four causes of heart disease.
High blood pressure, Smoking, Too much salt, High fat diets.
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What does a balanced diet contain?
Carbohydrates, fats, protein.
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What are carbohyrdates made up of?
Simple sugars
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What are proetins made up of?
Amino acids.
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Where are carbohydrates stroed and converted into when necessary?
Stored in the liver as glycogen and ca be converted into fats.
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Why do you need the mineral, iron?
To make haemoglobin in red bloods cells.
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Name 3 factors that might effect your diet.
Age, Medical issues, Beliefs.
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What is the formula for BMI?
Mass (KG) / Height (M)squared.
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What health risks come with obesity?
Arthritis, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and breast cancer.
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How can you get essential amino acids?
By eating food. Your body can't make them.
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What proteins does meat contain?
First class proteins.
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What is the proetin deficiency called?
Kwashiorkor
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What is the formula for EAR (esitimated average daily requirement)?
0.6 x body mass (KG)
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Name two eating disorders.
Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa.
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Name four causes of non infectious disease.
Poor diet, Organ Malfunction, Genetic Inheritence and Cells mutate.
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Name 3 way of reducing the risk of developing cancer.
Don't smoke, avoid getting sunburn and eat a healthy diet.
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Name all 4 micro-organisms taht pass on disease.
Fungi, Bacteria, Virus and protozoa.
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How can malaria be prevented?
Sleeping under mosquito nets, Using insect repellents and killing mosquitoes with insecticide.
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What are the 4 defences that the body has to stop pathogens?
Skin, Blood clots, Respiratory sytem, Stomach.
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What are the two ways that white blood cells deal with pathogens?
Enguling and digesting and making antibodies that attack pathogens.
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What are the benefits of immunisation?
Protects you from diseases tah could kill you and if everybody is vaccinated the disease will eventually die out.
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What are the risks of immunisation?
An individual could have a bad reaction to it and no vaccinationnis 100% safe.
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What mircro-organisms can antibiotics treat?
Bacteria and fungi.
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How can a drug be tested?
Compuetr models, animals and human tissue.
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What are the 3 types of neurone?
Senosory, Relay and Motor.
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Describe what the sensory neurone does.
Carrys nerve impulses from receptors to the brian.
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Describe what the relay neurone does.
Makes connections between neurones inside your brain and the spinal cord.
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Describe what the motor neurone does.
Carrys nerve impuleses from the brain to the muslces and glands.
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How are neruones adpated to there job?
Elongated shape(axon) to make connections from one part of the body to the other easier, insulating sheath to speed up nerve impulses, dendrites to allow single neurone to act on many muscle fibres.
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What order does the reflex action pathway go?
Stimulus, receptor, sensory neurone, relay neurone(in spinal cord), Motor neurone, Effector, Response.
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What happens in your eye when you receive light rays from a near object?
The ciliary muscles contract, the supensory ligament relax and the lens is short and fat to refract light a lot.
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What happens in your eye when you receive light rays from a distant object?
The ciliary muscles relax, the suspenary ligaments contract and the lens is long and thin because the light only needs to refract a little.
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What the common eye defects ?
Long sight, shirt sight and red-green colour blindness.
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What lens corrects long sight?
Convex
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What lens corrects short sight?
Concave
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Describe binocular vision.
Eyes are postioned cose togtehr on the front of the head, eyes have a limited view of field, can judge distance and speed accurately. Found on humans and predators.
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Describe monocular vision.
Eyes are postioned on noth sides of the head, each eye has a wide view of field, difficult to judge distance and speed accurately. Found on prey.
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What are the 5 catorgorys of drugs?
Stimulants. Depressants, Painkillers, Performance enhancers, Hallucinogens.
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Give an example of a stimulant drug.
Caffeine
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Give an example of a performance enhancing drug.
Anabolic steroids
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Give an example of a class A drug.
Cocaine
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Give an example of a class C drug.
Tranquilisers
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What are some withdrawal symptoms of drugs?
Cravings, Sweating, Shaking, Nausea.
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What are the short term effects of drinking alcohol?
Lack of balance, muscle control, blurred vision/speech, poor judgement and drowsiness, vasodilation (heat loss)
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What are the long term effects of drining alcohol?
Liver damage due to it working hard to remove the toxic alcohol from your body, brian damage due to hydration.
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Smoking dameages the cilia. What does the prevent?
It prevents the cilia being able to remove mucus, tar and dirt from the lungs which ledas to a smokers cough.
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In homeostasis, what 3 inputs and outputs does the body balance?
Steady temperature, Steady water levels and Steady carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
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What is the normal body temperature?
37'c
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Explain vasodilation.
Bloods vessels dilate allowing blood to flow closer to the surface of the skin. Heat is lost by radiation. You also sweat which cools the skin and it evaporates drawing heat from the skin.
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Explain vasoconstriction.
Blood vessels constrict stopping the blood flowing close to the surface. Sweating stops. This stops any heat being lost.
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What can happen if you get too hot?
Become dehydrated and this can lead to heat stroke and even death.
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What can happen if you get too cold?
Shivering, Hypothermia which can cause unconsciousnesss and sometimes death.
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Where can you read your body temp and what with.
A themometer or probe in the ear, mouth, skin surface or ****.
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What are hormones released by?
Glands.
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What is type 1 diabetes caused by?
The pancreas failing to produce insulin.
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What do plant hormones control?
The growth of shoots and roots and the floweringand ripening of shoots.
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Which way do shoots frow and what tropisms do they have?
Towards the light (postitive phototropism) and against gravity (negative geotropism)
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Which way do roots grow and what tropisms do they have?
Away from the light (negative phototropism) downwards in the direction of graviet (positive geoptropism)
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Where is auxin made?
In the tip of the shoot.
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What happens when light shines on a shoot?
The hormones in direct sunlight are destroyed, the hormones on the shaded side continue to function causing the cells to elongate, the shoot bends towards the light.
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What does rooting powder do?
Encourags the growth of roots in stem cuttings so plants can be ontained from one plant.
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What does selective weedkillers do?
They disrupt the growth patterns of their target plant without harming other plants. Weeds have a larger surface area than the crops so they recieve a bigger doese of hormones and die.
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What are the two other plant hormones other than rooting powder and selective weedkillers and what do they do?
Fruit ripening hormone that causes fruit to ripen. Ripening can be accelerated or delayed. Control of domancy which can be used to speed up/ slow down plant growth and bud development.
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Give two characteristics that are genetic.
Nose shape, Eye colour.
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Give two characteristics that are due to enviromental factors.
Language, Scars.
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Give two characteristics that are due to enviromental factors and genetics.
Body Mass, Height.
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How many chromosones does one person have?
23 pairs.
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If a person has a pair of chromosones that conatin the same allele of a gene, what are they described as being?
Homozygous
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If a person has a pair of chromosones with different alleles, what is the person described as?
Heterozgous
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Egg cells carry all X chromosones. What do sperm cells carry?
Half of sperm cells carry X and half carry Y.
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Give two examples of an inherited disorder.
Sickle cell anaemia and red-green colour blindness.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How can you reduce high blood pressure and maintain a normal one?

Back

Doing regular aerobic exercise and having a healthy diet.

Card 3

Front

What are 3 factors that lead to high blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does having too much staurated fat increse blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does Carbon monxoide contribute to high blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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