Science Revision Flashcards

How do you calculate the magnification of a microscope?
You multiply the magnification of the eyepiece by the magnification of the objective lens.
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What is something that can only be seen under a microscope be called?
It is said to be microscopic.
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Why can cells only be seen under a microscope?
They can only be seen under a microscope because they are extremely small.
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How many types of cells are there and how many are there?
They are either one of two types, plant celss or animal cells.
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What features do both plant and animal cells have?
They both have a nucleus, a cell membrane and a cytoplasm.
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What features do only plant cellls have?
Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and a large vacuole.
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Why are cells special shapes and sizes?
They are special shapes and sizes to do special jobs.
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What is a tissue?
A tissue is a collection of similar cells which do a simple job.
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What is an organ?
An organ is made up of different tissues which combine to do a comlicated job.
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What is a system?
A system is made up of several organd all of which contribute to a complex job.
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What are chloroplasts?
They are a plastid in green plant cells which contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
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What does a nucleus contain?
A nucleus ontains genetic material.
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What is energy measured in?
Enery is measured in Joules.
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What do moving objects have?
Kinetic energy.
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What energy does food contain?
Food contains chemical energy.
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What do batteries contain and what do they give out?
Batteries contain chemical energy and give out electrical energy.
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What do objects above the groung have?
Gravitational potential energy.
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What does burning fuels give off?
Heat, light and sometimes sound energy.
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Can you transfer one type of energy into another type?
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Can you create energy?
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How can we show how much energy we have wasted?
On Sankey diagrams.
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What are Sankey diagrams?
Sankey diagrams are a specific tyoes of flow diagram, in which the width of the arrows is shown proportionally to the flow quantity.
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What is current?
The movement of electrons.
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What is a conductor?
A material that lets energy through it.
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What is an insulator?
A material that does not let elecricity throught it.
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Why does a battery push the electrons around the circuit?
So a bigger voltage will make he electrons move quicker.
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How do all the components get the electricity at the same time?
Because the wire in a circuit is already full of electrons.
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How amny loops does a series circuit have?
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How many loops does a parallel circuit have?
More than one loop.
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What do ammeters measure currents in?
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What do voltmeters measure voltage in?
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Why do you connect an ammeter in series?
Because the electrons have to travel through it.
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Why do you connect a voltmeter in parallel?
Because it measure the push either side of a component.
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Why are bulbs in series dimmer than the ones in parallel?
Because they have to share the same voltage.
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Why are bulbs in parallel brighter than the ones in series?
Becaus they each get the whole voltage from the battery.
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Why is metal a good conductor?
Because the ions in the metal are closel packed together.
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What are forces measured in?
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How can bigger forces be shown?
By wider or longer arrows.
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What are the forces that act on a falling object?
Drag and weight.
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What are balanced forces?
They are foces that are equal. When the forces are balanced, the object stays still or moves at a constant speed.
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What are unbalanced forces?
They are when the forces are not equal. When the forces are unbalanced, the objects speds up, slows down, changes shape or changes direction.
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What is speed measured in?
Metres per second (m/s).
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How do calculate speed?
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How is friction produced?
When surfaces rub together.
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What does friction cause?
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What can friction be reduced by?
A lubricant. eg. oil water and wax.
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What is air resistence?
The force of friction of air on abjects moving through it.
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What is water resistence?
It is the force of friction of water on onjects moving throught it.
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Why do water and air resistence increase with speed?
Because particles hit the surface quicker.
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What is terminal velocity?
It is the maximum speed of a falling object. When drag=weight.
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What do streamlined shapes allow water/air to do?
It allows water and air to flow over them easily, so experience less drag.
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What are the three states of matter?
Solid, liquid and gas.
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What is the particle formation in a solid?
Tightly packed in rows and there is no room for the pasticles to move around.
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What is the particle formation in a liquid?
Particles are still touching each other but can move past each other.
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What is the particle formation in a gas?
Particles in a gas ae far apart and move fast and are not touching.
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What is the process of going from gas to liquid?
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What is the process of going from liquid to solid?
Freezing or solidifying.
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What is the process of going from solid to liquid?
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What i the process of going from liquid to gas?
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What do you need if you need to burn something?
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What do you start wih if there is a reaction?
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What do you have at the end of a reaction?
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What is diffusion?
When particles spread out in a liquid or a gas.
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Why can't diffusion happen in a solid?
Because the particles are too tightly packed together to be able to move.
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Can reversible reactants be changed back?
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Can ireversible reactants be changed back?
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How can you find out if a physical reaction has taken place?
If no new products have been made, then, it is a physicla reaction.
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How can chemical reactions be identified?
By looking for a temperature change, light given out, a gas given, a mass change and a colour change.
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Why does magnesium oxide gain mass when burned?
Because magnesium oxide is a solid.
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Why do candles lose mass when burned?
Because carbon dioxide is a gas and so floats away.
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What are male sex cells called?
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Where are the male sex cells made?
In the testis.
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What are female sex cells?
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Where are the female sex cells made?
In the ovaries.
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What is ovulation?
The release of an egg from the ovary at day14.
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Wwhat i fertilisation?
The joining of an egg and a sperm.
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Where does fertilisation occur?
In the oviduct.
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What is puberty?
The changing of a childs body into an adults.
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Wha i menstruation?
The loss of the uterus lining through the vagina.
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What is an unborn baby called?
A foetus.
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What does the umbilical cord connect the foestus to?
The placenta.
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What does the placenta provide?
Nutrition and oxygen.
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What does the placenta remove?
carbon dioxide and waste.
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Wwhat does the anther produce?
The pollen.
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What does the pollen fertilise?
It fertilises the ovum in the ovary of the flower.
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What is pollination?
The landing of the pollen on the stigma.
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What are the three main types of rock?
Igneous,metamorphic and sedimentary.
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Give two examples of igneous rocks.
Basalt an granite.
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What do sedimentary rocks have?
They have layers and sometimes they contain fossils.
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Give two examples of sedimentary rocks.
Limestone and sandstone.
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What changes sedimentary and igneous rocks into metamorphic rocks?
High pressures and high temperatures deep underground.
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Give two examples of metamorphic rocks.
Slate and marble.
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How namy weathering processes are there?
There are three weathering processes.
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What is chemical weathering?
It is when acid rain dissolves the surface of the rock.
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What is physical weathering?
When sand gets into the cracks of rocks and friction causes the surface of the rock to break off OR when water gets in the cracks and it freezes when it's cold and melts when it's warm. The expansion and contraction causes the rocks to break off.
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What is biological weathering?
When roots of plants bury themselves into the cracks of rocks in search of water. Thi causes the cracks to widen and then causes the rocks to break off.
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Why do smaller rocks get transorted and weather more quickly?
Becuase smaller rocks have a larger surface area.
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What sort of rivers transport lots of rock and soil and drop their load as they slow down?
Fast flowing rivers.
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What are the three fossil fuels?
Coal, oil and gas.
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What are fossil fuels made of?
The remains of dead plants and animals that lived millions of yers ago.
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Where are fossil fuels made?
Deep underground where the temperature and pressure are very high.
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What features do predators have?
They have sharp canine teeth and eyes which face forward.
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How does the pyramid of numbers work?
You have producers at the bottom and work their way up to the carnivores.
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What does a wide bar on the pyramid of numbers mean?
It means the larger the population of the organism.
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How is energy lost in food chains?
By movement, heat, excretion and respiration of the animals.
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What is excretion?
The removal of waste matter from an animal or a human.
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What is respiration?
Respiration is breathing. It is the act of taking in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide.
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What is a pest?
A pest is any organism which harms a human, animal or a crop.
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What do micro-organisms need to grow and reproduce quickly?
They need oxygen (for respiration), warmth and moisture.
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What does classification mean?
Splitting up the living world into groups of similar organisms.
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What are the five kingdoms that the living world can be split up into?
Animals, plants, monera, protista and fungi
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What can the animal kingdom be split up into?
Vertebrates- animals with backbones and invertebrates- animals without backbones.
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Why do stalagmites and stalactites form?
Because calcium carbonate is slightly soluble in water.
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What happens when a solid dissolves?
The solid particles become surrounded with water molecules.
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How is a solution formed?
When a solute (solid) dissolves in a solvent.
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What are solutes?
Solids that dissolve in solvents.
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What are solutes said to be?
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What dos insolube mean?
Solids that cannot dissolve.
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What is graffiti insoluble and soluble in?
Insoluble in water but solubl in other solvents.
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How can a mixture of a soluble solid and insoluble solid be separated?
By dissolving the soluble one in the solvent and then filtering the mixture.
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How can a solute be recovered from a solution?
By evaporating the solvent.
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What is distillation?
Collecting the solvent from the solution.
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What are the two steps of distillation?
1) Evaporating the solvent. 2) Condensing the solvent.
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How does a Liebig condensor work?
It cool the solvent vapours using cold water.
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Give one liquid that evaporates very easily.
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What is the distilate?
The liquid that is collected by distillation.
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Can a mixture of solids be separated using chromotography?
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Why does paper chromatography work?
Because the dissolved solids move at different rates along the paper.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is something that can only be seen under a microscope be called?


It is said to be microscopic.

Card 3


Why can cells only be seen under a microscope?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How many types of cells are there and how many are there?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What features do both plant and animal cells have?


Preview of the front of card 5
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