science glossary

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Bioleaching
process of extraction of metals from ores using microorganisms.
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Compound
a substance made when two or more elements are chemically bonded together
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Covalent bond
the attraction between two atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons
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Cracking
the reaction used in the oil industry to break down large hydrocarbons into smaller more useful ones. this occurs when the hydrocarbon vapour is either passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam and heated to a high temperature.
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Displace
when one element takes the place of another in a compound
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Distillation
separation of liquid from a mixture by evaporation followed by condensation
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Electrolysis
the breakdown of a substance containing ions by electricity
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Emulsion
a mixture of liquids that do not dissolve in each other
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Exothermic
a reaction that gives out energy to the surroundings
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Fermentation
the reaction in which the enzymes in yeast turn glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide
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Fractional distillation
a way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling off the substance at different temperatures then condensing and collecting the liquids
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Giant covalent structure
a huge 3d network of covalently bonded atoms
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Giant lattice
a huge 3d network of atoms or ions
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Hardening
the process of reacting plant oils with hydrogen to raise their melting point this is used to make spreadable margarine
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Isotope
atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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Neutralisation
the chemical reaction of an acid with a base in which they cancel each other out forming a salt and water. If the base is a carbonate or hydrogen carbonate carbon dioxide is also produced in the reaction.
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Oxidation
the reaction when oxygen is added to a substance
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Polymer
a substance made from very large molecules made up of many repreating units
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Polymerisation
the reaction of monomers to make a polymer
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Reactant
a substance we start with before a chemical reaction takes place.
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Reduction
a reaction in which oxygen is removed
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Respiration
the process by which food molecules are broken down to release energy from the cells
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Smelting
heating a metal ore in order to extract its metal
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Thermal decomposition
the breakdown of a compound by heat
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Compound

Back

a substance made when two or more elements are chemically bonded together

Card 3

Front

Covalent bond

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cracking

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Displace

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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