Science GCSE Biology Revision

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What is DNA?
DNA is a long molecule made up of twisted strands of the bases A, T, C and G.
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What are genes?
Genes are sections of the DNA and each gene has the code for creating a specific protein. The sequence of bases in the gene controls which amino acids are created and joined to make a specific new protein or enzyme molecule.
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What are enzymes?
Enzymes are large molecules that speed up the chemical reactions inside cells. Each type of enzyme does one specific job. Enzymes are a type of protein, and like all proteins, they are made from long chains of different amino acids.
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Aerobic respiration...
Most of our energy comes from the process of aerobic respiration, which takes place inside the mitochondria of cells.
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What is mitochondria?
Mitochondria are oval structures with a folded inner membrane. They occur in large numbers inside muscle cells and liver cells, where a lot of energy is needed. The mitochondria hold a large number of different enzymes which are responsible for diffe
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Explain enzyme structure
Enzymes are soluble protein molecules that can speed up chemical reactions in cells. Like all proteins they consist of a string of different amino acid sub units. The amino acids must occur in the correct sequence for the enzyme to work. This sequenc
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DNA overall
DNA molecules are very long but are packed into compact structures called chromosomes. Each DNA molecule consists of two twisted strands of bases that form a shape called a double helix. The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between pai
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Give a method of extracting DNA
One of the simplest methods is using peas, soya beans, cress or sweetcorn. Salt water is mixed with detergent and the mashed up substance being tested. This mixture is then left for 15 minutes at 60ºC. The next stage in the method is to filter the mi
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Card 2

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What are genes?

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Genes are sections of the DNA and each gene has the code for creating a specific protein. The sequence of bases in the gene controls which amino acids are created and joined to make a specific new protein or enzyme molecule.

Card 3

Front

What are enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Aerobic respiration...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is mitochondria?

Back

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