Science - Chemistry

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  • Created by: tashamay
  • Created on: 07-06-15 22:48
What is an ionic bond?
When a non metal and a metal give and take electrons. The metal loses electrons to from positive ions and the non metal gains electrons to form negative ions. The opposite charges of the ions means that they're strongly attracted to each other.
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What is a covalent bond?
A compound formed from non metals that consists of molecules. Each atom shares an electron with another atom.
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Limestone
Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3
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When calcium carbonate is reacted with water, what does it produce?
Calcium Hydroxide
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What is limestone used for?
Buildings - e.g. Cathedrals
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When limestone is heated it...
Thermally decomposes to make calcium oxide and calcium dioxide
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How is limestone got out of the ground?
By quarrying
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What are some disadvantages of quarrying?
1. Makes big holes that permanently change the landscape. 2. Makes lots of noise and dust (pollution). 3. Destroys habitats of animals and birds. 4. Need lorries to transport the limestone, this causes more noise and pollution. 5. Produce tips.
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Disadvantages of limestone.
1. Cement factories make a lots of dust, which can cause breathing problems. 2. Energy is needed to produce cement and quicklime. The energy is likely to come from burning fossil fuels, which causes pollution.
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Advantages of limestone.
1. Limestone provides houses and roads. 2. Limestone products are used to neutralise acidic soil. 3. It's used in power station chimneys to neutralise sulfur dioxide, which is a cause of acid rain.
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Calcium carbonate -->
Calcium oxide + carbon dioxide.
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Calcium carbonate + sulfuric acid -->
Calcium sulfate + carbon dioxide + water.
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Calcium oxide + water -->
Calcium hydroxide.
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Limestone makes other useful things too, which are?
1. Powdered limestone is heating in a kiln with powdered clay to make cement. 2. Cement can be mixed with sand and water to make mortar. 3. Or you can mix cement with sand and aggregate (water and gravel) to make concrete
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What is a metal ore?
A metal ore is a rock which contains enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting the metal from it.
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How are most metals extracted from their ores?
By using a chemical reaction.
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There are different ways that a metal can be extracted from its ore, what are they?
Chemically - by reduction or by electrolysis.
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What may some ores have to be before the metal is extracted? (It involves getting rid of the unwanted rocky material).
Concentrated.
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Some metals can be extracted by reduction, but with what element?
Carbon.
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What is removed when an ore is reduced?
Oxygen.
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Metals higher than carbon in the reactivity series (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al) have to be extracted using what?
Electrolysis, which is expensive.
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Metals below carbon in the reactivity series (Zn, Fe, Sn, Cu) can be extracted by what?
Reduction using carbon.
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Why are the metals below carbon in the reactivity series reducted using carbon?
Because carbon can only take the oxygen away from metals which are less reactive than itself.
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How is copper purified?
By electrolysis.
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What does electrolysis mean?
Splitting up with electricity.
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Metals that are more reactive than carbon have to be extracted using electrolysis of what?
Molten compounds.
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Copper ore is heating in a furnace, what is this called?
Smelting.
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Copper produced through smelting is impure - and impure copper doesn't conduct electricity very well, so what is used to purify copper?
Electrolysis.
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Definition of bioleaching
Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms.
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Definition of pytomining
Phytomining is a more specific form of phytoremediation where the purpose of metal removal from soil is economic gain.
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Can metal extraction good or bad for the environment?
Bad.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a covalent bond?

Back

A compound formed from non metals that consists of molecules. Each atom shares an electron with another atom.

Card 3

Front

Limestone

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When calcium carbonate is reacted with water, what does it produce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is limestone used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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