Science Biology June 2014-COMPLETED

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  • Created by: Lamide
  • Created on: 18-05-14 11:59
What combination is needed to keep the body healthy
A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise
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What do our bodies provide
An excellent environment for many microbes which can make us ill once they are inside us.
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What do our bodies need to do
to stop most microbes getting in.To deal with any microbes which do get in.
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What can vaccinations be used to do
To prevent infection.
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What does a healthy diet contain
The right balance of thedifferent foods you need and the right amount of energy.
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What are carbohydrates, fats and protiens used for
To release energy and to build cells.
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What are mineral ions and vitamins needed for
For healthy functioning of the body.
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How much mineral ions and vitamins are needed
In small amounts
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How can a person be malnourished
If their diet is not balanced.
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What might happen if a person is malnourished
A person may be overweight or underweight.
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What does an unbalanced diet lead to
To deficiency diseases or conditions such as Type 2 diabetes.
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How does a person loose mass
When the energy content of the food taken in is less than the amount of energy expended by the body.
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What does exercise increase in the body
The amount of energy expended by the body
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What is the metabolic rate
The rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out
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The metabolic rate varies...
depending on the amount of activity you do and the proportion of muscle to fat in your body.
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What can the metabolic rate by affected by
Inherited factors
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What does the metabolic rate affect
Our health; for example cholesterol level.
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Give a statement about people who exercise regularly
People who exercise regularly are usually healthier than people who take little exercise.
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What are microorganisms that cause infectious disease called
Pathogens
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What are pathogens
microorganisms that cause infectious disease
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What to bacteria and viruses do
reproduce rapidly inside the body and may produce poisons (toxins) that make us feel ill.
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What do viruses do
Viruses damage the cells in which they reproduce.
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How do white blood cells help defend against pathogens
■ ingesting pathogens ■ producing antibodies, which destroy particular bacteria or viruses ■ producing antitoxins, which counteract the toxins released by the pathogens.
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What does the immune system of the body do
It produces specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen.
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What happens next when the immune system produces specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen
This leads to immunity from that pathogen.
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What happens during vaccinations
A dead or inactivated pathogens stimulates antibody production.
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What happens if a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen
The spread of the pathogen is very much reduced.
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What did Semmelweis recognise
Semmelweis recognised the importance of hand-washing in the prevention of spreading some infectious diseases.
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How did Semmelweis emphasize the importance of washing hands
By insisting that doctors washed their hands before examining patients,
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What effect did Semmelweis have on people
He greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital.
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Give an example of a medicine
Painkillers
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What do some medicines do
They help to relieve the symptoms of infectious disease, but do not kill the pathogens.
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Give an example of an antibiotic
Penicillin
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What are antibiotics
They are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease
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How do antibiotics work
By killing infectious bacteria inside the body.
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What can antibiotics not be used for
To kill viral pathogens
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What do viruses do in cells
They live and reproduce inside cells.
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What is important when using antibiotics
That specific bacteria should be treated by specific antibiotics.
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Why is it difficult to develop drugs for viruses
Because it would be difficult to kill the virus without also damaging the body’s tissues.
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How has using antibiotics affected people
It has greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases.
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What has increased the rate of development of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria.
The overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics
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Give an example of a strain of bacteria
MRSA
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What has happens to strains of bacteria, such as MRSA
have developed resistance to antibiotics as a result of natural selection.
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What action should be taken to prevent further resistance to antibiotics
Avoid overusing antibiotics.
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What is the development of resistant bacteria
It is limited to the fact that pathogens mutate, producing resistant strains.
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What happens when pathogens mutate
It produces new strains
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What is a negative effect If a mutation of a pathogen occurs
Antibiotics and vaccinations may no longer be effective against a new resistant strain of the pathogen.
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What happens when new strains of bacteria appear
The strains will then spread rapidly
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Why will new strains of bacteria appear rapidly
Because people are not immune to it and there is no effective treatment.
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What do antibiotics kill
They kill individual pathogens of the non-resistant strain
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What happens to the individual resistant pathogen
The individual resistant pathogens survive and reproduce, so the population of the resistant strain increases
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Now, what are antibiotics not used to treat
now, antibiotics are not used to treat non-serious infections, such as mild throat infections, so that the rate of development of resistant strains is slowed down.
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Give a statement about antibiotic resistant strains
The development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria necessitates the development of new antibiotics.
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How can people be immunised against a disease
By introducing small quantities of dead or inactive forms of the pathogen into the body
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What is a vaccination
By introducing small quantities of dead or inactive forms of the pathogen into the body
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What do vaccines do
They stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens.
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What does having a vaccination do
This makes the person immune to future infections by the microorganism.
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What happens if a person comes into contact with the same pathogen again
The body can respond by rapidly making the correct antibody, in the same way as if the person had previously had the disease.
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What is the MMR vaccine used to protect children against
Measles, mumps and rubella.
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What is required for investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics.
Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms
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Why are uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms required
For investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics.
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What steps must be done when culturing microorganisms
Petri dishes and culture media must be sterilised before use to kill unwanted microorganisms. The inoculating loops which is used to transfer microorganisms to the media must be sterilised by passing them through a flame.
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What is another step to be taken when culturing microorganisms
The lid of the Petri dish should be secured with adhesive tape to prevent microorganisms from the air contaminating the culture.
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What temperature should cultures should be incubated at in schools and colleges
At a maximum temperature of 25'c
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What does culturing microbes at 25c do
It greatly reduces the likelihood of growth of pathogens that might be harmful to humans.
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How will microorganisms be grown in industrial environments
At higher temperatures, so that they can produce more rapid growth.
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What do the the nervous system and hormones enable us to do
To respond to external changes.
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What helps us to respond to external changes.
The nervous system and hormones
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What do the nervous system and hormones help to control
Conditions inside our bodies.
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Conditions inside our bodies are controlled by what
The nervous system and hormones
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What are some hormones used for
In some forms of contraception and in fertility treatments.
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What do plants respond to
External Stimuli
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What do plants produce
Hormones
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What does the nervous system enable humans to do
To react to their surroundings and coordinate their behaviour.
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What do receptors detect
Stimuli
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What is a stimulus
A change in the environment
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What are eye receptors
Receptors in the eyes that are sensitive to light
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What are ear receptors
Receptors in the ears that are sensitive to sound and are sensitive to changes in position and enable us to keep our balance
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What are tongue and nose receptors
Receptors on the tongue and in the nose that are sensitive to chemicals and enable us to taste and to smell
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What are skin receptors
Receptors in the skin that are sensitive to touch, pressure, pain and to temperature changes.
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What do light receptor cells have
They have a nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane.
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Information from receptors are passes along what
Cells (neurones) in nerves to the brain.
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What coordinates the response
The brain
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At what speed to reflexes happen
Automatically and rapidly
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What do reflexes involve
Involve sensory, relay and motor neurones.
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What is the first step of a reflex action
Impulses from a receptor pass along a sensory neurone to the central nervous system
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What is the second step of a reflex action
At a junction (synapse) between a sensory neurone and a relay neurone in the central nervous system, a chemical is released that causes an impulse to be sent along a relay neurone
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What is the third step of a reflex action
A chemical is then released at the synapse between a relay neurone and motor neurone in the central nervous system, causing impulses to be sent along a motor neurone to the organ (the effector) that brings about the response
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What is the fourth step of a reflex action
The effector is either a muscle or a gland, a muscle responds by contracting and a gland responds by releasing (secreting) chemical substances.
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What internal conditions are controlled
The water content of the body, The ion content of the body, Temperature, Blood sugar levels
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How is the water content of the body controlled
Water leaves the body via the lungs when we breathe out and via the skin when we sweat to cool us down, and excess water is lost via the kidneys in the urine
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How is the ion content of the body controlled
Ions are lost via the skin when we sweat and excess ions are lost via the kidneys in the urine
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How is the temperature of the body controlled
The temperature is to maintained at the temperature at which enzymes work best
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How is blood sugar levels of the body controlled
The blood sugar levels provide the cells with a constant supply of energy.
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What are many processes within the body are coordinated by
Hormones
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What are hormones
Chemical Substances
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What are hormones secreted by
By glands
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Where are hormones transported to
To their target organs by the bloodstream
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What do hormones regulate
The functions of many organs and cells.
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What is an example of how hormones regulate processes in the body
The monthly release of an egg from a woman’s ovaries and the changes in the thickness of the lining of her womb
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What is the menstrual cycle controlled by
Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and by the ovaries.
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Where is FSH secreted
By the pituitary gland
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What does FSH cause
Eggs to mature in the ovaries.
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What does FSH stimulate
It stimulates the ovaries to produce hormones including oestrogen
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What does LH stimulate
Stimulates the release of eggs from the ovary
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Where is oestrogen secreted
By the ovaries
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What does oestrogen inhibit
The further production of FSH.
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How can hormones be used to control fertility
By giving oral contraceptives that contain hormones to inhibit FSH production so that no eggs mature
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What hormones do oral contraceptives have. What do these hormones do.
Oral contraceptives may contain oestrogen and progesterone.These inhibit egg maturation
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What did the first birth-control pills contain. What were the effects of these pills.
Large amounts of oestrogen. Women suffered significant side effects
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What do new modern contraceptive pills contain
They contain a much lower dose of oestrogen, or are progesterone only
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What is an advantage of progesterone only pills
They lead to fewer side effects
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What can be given to women during IVF
By giving FSH and LH in a ‘fertility drug’ to a woman whose own level of FSH is too low to stimulate eggs to mature,
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What does IVF involve Part 1
It involves giving a mother FSH and LH to stimulate the maturation of several eggs. The eggs are collected from the mother and fertilised by sperm from the father. The fertilised eggs develop into embryos.
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What do IVF involve Part 2
At the stage when they are tiny balls of cells, one or two embryos are inserted into the mother’s uterus (womb).
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What are plants sensitive to
light, moisture and gravity:
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How do plant shoots grow
Their shoots grow towards light and against the force of gravity
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How do plant roots grow
Their roots grow towards moisture and in the direction of the force of gravity.
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Why do plants produce hormones
To coordinate and control growth.
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What does auxin control
It controls phototropism and gravitropism (geotropism).
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The responses of plant roots and shoots to light, gravity and moisture are the result of what
moisture are the result of unequal distribution of hormones, causing unequal growth rate
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What are plant growth hormones used for
In agriculture and horticulture as weed killers and as rooting hormones.
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What do drugs affect
The body's chemistry
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What must be done to medicinal drugs first
They are developed and tested before being used to relieve illness or disease.
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Why may some people use drugs recreationally
Because some people like the effect it has on the body.
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Why may some athletes use drugs
To improve their performance
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When can people make sensible decisions about drugs
Until they know its full effects.
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What must happen to a medicine before it is used
They have to be extensively tested and trialled before being used.
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Why are drugs tested
To find out if they are safe and effective.
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What are new drugs tested for
They are tested for toxicity, efficacy and dose:
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Where can drugs be tested
In the laboratory, using cells, tissues and live animals
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What happens during clinical trials on healthy patients
Very low doses of the drug are given at the start of the clinical trial.
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What happens if the drug is found to be safe on healthy patients
further clinical trials are carried out to find the optimum dose for the drug.
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What happens in some double blind trials
some patients are given a placebo, which does not contain the drug. Neither the doctors nor the patients know who has received a placebo and who has received the drug until the trial is complete.
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What can tissues and animals be used as
As models to predict how the drugs may behave in humans.
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What can be used to lower the risk of heart and circulatory diseases.
Statins
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What are statins used for
to lower the risk of heart and circulatory diseases.
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What is thalidomide
It is a drug that was developed as a sleeping pill.
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How was thalidomide also effective
It was also found to be effective in relieving morning sickness in pregnant women.
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What had not been done when testing thalidomide
Thalidomide had not been tested on pregnant women
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What happened to the pregnant mothers who took thalidomide
many babies born to mothers who took the drug were born with severe limb abnormalities.
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What then happened to thalidomide once if was found to have this negative effect
It was banned
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How has the thalidomide disaster effected the way drugs are tested today
Drug testing has become much more rigorous.
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What disease has thalidomide recently been used to cure
Leprosy and other diseases
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What happens if you were to misuse illegal recreational drugs such as ecstasy, cannabis and heroin
It may have adverse effects on the heart and circulatory system.
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What does cannabis smoke contain and what effect can this have on a person
Chemicals which may cause mental illness in some people.
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Give a statement about the impact of drugs
The overall impact of legal drugs on health is much greater than the impact of illegal drugs because far more people use them.
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Why do legal drugs have more of an impact on people
Because far more people use them.
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What do drugs do in the body
Drugs change the chemical processes in peoples’ bodies so that they may become dependent or addicted to the drug and suffer withdrawal symptoms without them.
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Give examples of very addictive drugs
Heroin and cocaine
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Give examples of drugs that are banned
Heroin and Cocaine
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What drugs are banned from sports
stimulants that boost bodily functions such as heart rate; and anabolic steroids which stimulate muscle growth.
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What does the population size of living organisms depend on
competition, predation, disease and human influences.
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What may effect the behaviour and distribution of organisms
Changes in the environment
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What are factors limited to in organisms
light, water, space and nutrients in plants; food, mates and territory in animals.
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What must organisms do to survive and reproduce,
organisms require a supply of materials from their surroundings and from the other living organisms there.
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What do plants compete each other for
for light and space, and for water and nutrients from the soil.
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What do animals compete for
food, mates and territory.
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What do organisms have
have features (adaptations) that enable them to survive in the conditions in which they normally live.
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What are extremophiles tolerant to
To high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures.
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How can animals be adapted to survive in arctic and dry conditions
■ changes to surface area ■ thickness of insulating coat ■ amount of body fat ■ camouflage.
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How can plants be adapted to survive in dry environments
* changes to surface area, particularly of the leaves ■ water-storage tissues ■ extensive root systems.
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How can animals and plants be adapted to cope with specific features of their environment,
eg thorns, poisons and warning colours to deter predators.
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What affects the distribution of living organisms. Give examples
Change in the environment. changing distribution of some bird species and the disappearance of pollinating insects, including bees.
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What may changes in the environment be caused by
Such changes may be caused by living or non-living factors such as a change in a competitor, or in the average temperature or rainfall.
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What living organisms can be used to show that an area is polluted
■ lichens can be used as air pollution indicators, particularly of the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere
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Give another example of a living organisms can be used to show that an area is polluted
invertebrate animals can be used as water pollution indicators and are used as indicators of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water.
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What can environmental changes be measured by
By using non-living indicators such as oxygen levels, temperature and rainfall.
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How can we can find out what happens to energy and biomass as it passes along the food chain.
By observing the numbers and sizes of the organisms in food chains
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What can observing the numbers and sizes of the organisms in food chains do
we can find out what happens to energy and biomass as it passes along the food chain.
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What is the source of energy for most communities of living organisms.
Radiation from the sun
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What do green plants and algae do
Algae absorb a small amount of the light that reaches them.
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What energy transfer takes place during photosynthesis
The transfer from light energy to chemical energy
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Where is the chemical energy stored in the plant
This energy is stored in the substances that make up the cells of the plants.
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What is the mass living material like on a pyramid of biomass
The mass of living material (biomass) at each stage in a food chain is less than it was at the previous stage.
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Why is the amounts of material and energy contained in the biomass of organisms is reduced at each successive stage in a food chain
■ some materials and energy are always lost in the organisms’ waste materials ■ respiration supplies all the energy needs for living processes, including movement. Much of this energy is eventually transferred to the surroundings.
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What can happen if natural materials are recycled
It can lead to stable communities.
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Why do living things remove materials from the environment
For growth and other processes
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How are materials returned to the environment
In waste materials or when living things die and decay.
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Why do materials decay
because they are broken down (digested) by microorganisms.
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When do microorganisms break down things best
in warm, moist, aerobic conditions.
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What does the decay processes release
releases substances that plants need to grow.
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What happens in a stable community
the processes that remove materials are balanced by processes that return materials. The materials are constantly cycled.
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What is the carbon cycle
The constant recycling of carbon
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What happens in the carbon cycle 1
carbon dioxide is removed from the environment by green plants and algae for photosynthesis
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What happens in the carbon cycle 2
the carbon from the carbon dioxide is used to make carbohydrates, fats and proteins, which make up the body of plants and algae
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What happens in the carbon cycle 3
when green plants and algae respire, some of this carbon becomes carbon dioxide and is released into the atmosphere
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What happens in the carbon cycle 4
when green plants and algae are eaten by animals and these animals are eaten by other animals, some of the carbon becomes part of the fats and proteins that make up their bodies
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What happens in the carbon cycle 5
when animals respire some of this carbon becomes carbon dioxide and is released into the atmosphere
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What happens in the carbon cycle 6
when plants, algae and animals die, some animals and microorganisms feed on their bodies
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What happens in the carbon cycle 7
carbon is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide when these organisms respire
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What happens in the carbon cycle 8
by the time the microorganisms and detritus feeders have broken down the waste products and dead bodies of organisms in ecosystems and cycled the materials as plant nutrients, all the energy originally absorbed by green plants and algae has been
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What happens in the carbon cycle 9
combustion of wood and fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
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Why are people and organisms different
are due partly to the information in the cells they have inherited from their parents and partly to the different environments in which the individuals live and grow.
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What can asexual reproduction be used to do
produce individuals that are genetically identical to their parent.
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What can scientist now do to genes
Scientists can now add, remove or change genes to produce the plants and animals they want.
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What is carried in the genes
The information that results in plants and animals having similar characteristics to their parents
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How are genes passed on
They are passed on in the sex cells (gametes) from which the offspring develop.
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What does the nucleus of a cell contain
Chromosomes
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what do chromosomes do
Chromosomes carry genes that control the characteristics of the body.
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control the development of different characteristics of an organism.
Different genes
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What may differences in the characteristics of different individuals of the same kind may be due to
Differences in.. the genes they have inherited (genetic causes) ■ the conditions in which they have developed (environmental causes) ■ or a combination of both.
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What is sexual reproduction
the joining (fusion) of male and female gametes. The mixture of the genetic information from two parents leads to variety in the offspring
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What is asexual reproduction
no fusion of gametes and only one individual is needed as the parent. There is no mixing of genetic information and so no genetic variation in the offspring. These genetically identical individuals are known as clones.
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How can new plants be produce quickly and cheaply
By taking cuttings from older plants
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What are plants taken from cuttings like
These new plants are genetically identical to the parent plant.
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What are two types of modern cell cloning
tissue culture – using small groups of cells from part of a plant ■ embryo transplants – splitting apart cells from a developing animal embryo before they become specialised, then transplanting the identical embryos into host mothers
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What is one method of modern cell cloning
adult cell cloning – the nucleus is removed from an unfertilised egg cell. The nucleus from an adult body cell, eg a skin cell, is then inserted into the egg cell. An electric shock then causes the egg cell to begin to divide to form embryo cells
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Continued
These embryo cells contain the same genetic information as the adult skin cell. When the embryo has developed into a ball of cells, it is inserted into the womb of an adult female to continue its development.
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What happens in genetic engineering
In genetic engineering, genes from the chromosomes of humans and other organisms can be ‘cut out’ using enzymes and transferred to cells of other organisms.
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How can genes be transferred
Genes can also be transferred to the cells of animals, plants or microorganisms at an early stage in their development so that they develop with desired characteristics.
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What can new genes be used to do
new genes can be transferred to crop plants
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What are examples of genetically modified crops
Examples of genetically modified crops include ones that are resistant to insect attack or to herbicides
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What are GM crops (Genetically Modified Crops)
crops that have had their genes modified
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What do genetically modified crops show
genetically modified crops generally show increased yields.
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What are some of the concerns of GM crops
Concerns about GM crops include the effect on populations of wild flowers and insects, and uncertainty about the effects of eating GM crops on human health.
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What may happen if a particular gene or accidental change in the genes of plants or animals occurs
It may give them characteristics which enable them to survive better.
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What may happen over time to a particular gene over time
Over time this may result in entirely new species.
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Which evolution theory is accepted more today
Charles Darwins Theory
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Why may scientist produce different hypothesis
to explain similar observations. It is only when these hypotheses are investigated that data will support or refute hypotheses.
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What does Darwin's theory of natural selection state
that all species of living things have evolved from simple life forms that first developed more than three billion years ago.
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Why was the theory of evolution only gradually accepted (2)
the theory challenged the idea that God made all the animals and plants that live on Earth ■ there was insufficient evidence at the time the theory was published to convince many scientists
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Why was the theory of evolution only gradually accepted (1)
the mechanism of inheritance and variation was not known until 50 years after the theory was published.
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What are other theories including Lamarks theory based on
They are based mainly on the idea that changes that occur in an organism during its lifetime can be inherited. We now know that in the vast majority of cases this type of inheritance cannot occur.
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What does studying the similarities and differences between organisms allows us to do
to classify living organisms into animals, plants and microorganisms, and helps us to understand evolutionary and ecological relationships.
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What do models allow us to do
Models allow us to suggest relationships between organisms.
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What does evolution involve (2)
individual organisms within a particular species may show a wide range of variation because of differences in their genes ■ individuals with characteristics most suited to the environment are more likely to survive to breed successfully
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What does evolution involve (1)
■ the genes that have enabled these individuals to survive are then passed on to the next generation.
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What happens when new forms of a gene result from a mutation
there may be relatively rapid change in a species if the environment changes.
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