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Genes
Genes are found in our chromosomes,which parents pass on to offspring in their sex cells in reproduction.
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Alleles
Alleles are different versions of the same gene they determine genetic variations and the inheritance of disorders such as Cystic Fibrosis and Huntington Disease
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Nucleus
The nucleus controls the activities of the cell. The instructions for how an organism should develop are found in the nucleus.
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Chromosomes
Chromosomes are usually found in the nucleus of cells. They consist of long strands of DNA.
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DNA
The material inside the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid,
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Proteins
he proteins can either be: structural proteins such as the ones found in muscles and hair enzymes, such as proteases and other digestive enzymes.
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Variations
Individuals differ in all sorts of ways, even when they are offspring of the same parents. These differences are called variation. Most characteristics, such as height, are determined by several genes working together. They are also influenced by env
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Female sex cells
Female sex cells are called eggs or ova. Females only have XX Chromosomes. The egg cells contain 23 single Chromosomes.
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Male sex cells
Male sex cells are called sperm. Males have both XY Chromosomes. The sperm contains 23 single Chromosomes.
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Zygote
An Zygote is a result of the egg cell and sperm cell joining causing fertilization. An zygote consists of 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs half from the egg and the other half from the sperm.
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Homozygous
This is the word used to describe when you have alleles that are the same
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Heterozygous
This is the word to describe alleles that are different.
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Recessive
A recessive allele only shows if the individual has two copies of it. For example, the allele for blue eyes is recessive. You need two copies of this allele to have blue eyes.
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Dominant
A dominant allele always shows, even if the individual only has one copy of it. For example, the allele for brown eyes is dominant. You only need one copy of it to have brown eyes. Two copies will still give you brown eyes.
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Cystic Fibrosis
Is caused by a recessive allele and allows carriers to produce a thick and sticky mucus.
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Huntingtons Disease
Huntington’s disorder is caused by a dominant allele, written as H. The symptoms usually develop in middle age, and include tremors, clumsiness, mood changes, memory loss and the inability to concentrate.
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Genetic Testing
Genetic testing involves analysis of a person’s DNA to see if they carry alleles that cause genetic disorders. It can be done at any stage in a person’s life. There are several types of genetic testing.
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Neonatal Testing
This is used just after a baby has been born. It is designed to detect genetic disorders that can be treated early. In the UK, all babies are screened for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis. Babies born to families that ar
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Antenatal Testing
This is used to analyse an individual’s DNA or chromosomes before they are born. At the moment, it cannot detect all inherited disorders. Prenatal testing is offered to couples who may have an increased risk of producing a baby with an inherited diso
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Cloning
Clones are genetically identical individuals. Bacteria, plants and some animals can reproduce asexually to form clones that are genetically identical to their parent. Identical human twins are also clones: any differences between them are due to envi
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Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction only requires one parent, unlike sexual reproduction, which needs two. Since there is only one parent, there is no fusion of gametes, and no mixing of genetic information. As a result, the offspring are genetically identical to t
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Natural Cloning
Twins are genetically identical because they are formed after one egg cell is fertilised but splits to form two embryos. They have the same genes. As the genes came from both parents they are not clones of either parent, but they are natural clones o
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Artificial Cloning
It is possible to make clones artificially. The cloning of animals has many important commercial implications. It allows an individual animal that has desirable features, such as a cow that produces a lot of milk, to be duplicated several times.
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Adult Stem Cells
these are unspecialised cells that can develop into many (but not all) types of cells
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Embryonic Stem Cells
these are unspecialised cells that can develop into any type of cell.
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Card 2

Front

Alleles are different versions of the same gene they determine genetic variations and the inheritance of disorders such as Cystic Fibrosis and Huntington Disease

Back

Alleles

Card 3

Front

The nucleus controls the activities of the cell. The instructions for how an organism should develop are found in the nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Chromosomes are usually found in the nucleus of cells. They consist of long strands of DNA.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The material inside the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid,

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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