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What do acids always have in them?
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examples of acids
lemon juice,vinegar,ant,bee netle sting
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labratory acids
hydrochloric ,suplphuric,nitric acid
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lemon juice
citric acid
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ethonic acid
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alkalis are..
corrosive,react with acids to form salt and water.
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examples of alkali in labratory
sodium,calcium,potassium hydroxide
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examples of alkali
ammonia solution-cleaning products, baking soda- sodium hydrogencarbonate
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can burn your skin
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can cause death if breathed in swallowed or absorbed by skin
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will make your skin blister or red
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can cause harmful effects such as cancer
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they are used to tell if a dissolved substance is accidic alkali or neutral
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indicators made from neutral dyes..
reb cabbage,beetrot,blackcurrant
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litmus indicator
tells if its alkali or acid
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disadvantage of litmus indicator
difficult to tell is substance is neutral,doesnt tell if its stron or weak.
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Red cabbage indicator experiment
wear safety glasses.chop red cabbage in small it into mortar and add boiling water.use pestle to grind the cabbage in the water is well coloured sollution.filter off the indicastor solution.dispose it
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canceling out an acid by alkali -vise versa
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neutralisation practical
measure 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid and pour into conical flask.5 dropps of universal indicator and record ph colour.measure 50cm3 of sodium hydroxide into burette,slowly add sodium hydrox to hydrochloric acd.swirling mixing this untill neutral
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ph sensors advanatge
more accurate than trying to record the colour. also records the ph value.
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neutralisation reactions. acid+alkali -salt+water
hydrochloric acid -sodium chloride+water
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sulphuric acid+sodium hydroxide-
sodium sulphate +water
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uses of neutralisation-curing indigestion
caused by too much of build up hydrochloric acid in the stomach.cured by indigestion tablets.
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typical reaction of hydrochloric acid
hydrochloric acid+sodium hydrogencarbonate-sodium chloride+carbon dioxide+water
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testing for carbon dioxide
building up gas through lime water-clear to milky.co2 is present- released by burping.
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farmers add lime to soil..
because soil is too acidic then props wount grow.lime is an alkali so they will make it less acidic or neutral.
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uses of alkali
when sodium hydrogencarbonate is heated it goes through thermol decomposition. when sodium is heated it produced co2 this causes mixtures to rise.
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equation for hydrogencarbonate heated.
sodium hydrogen carbonate-sodium carbonate +water+carbon dioxide
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ingredients used in sherbet
icing sugar,baking soda,citrci acid
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fizzing senstation in sherbet is ..
carbon dioxide
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equation for sherbet
sodium hydroogencarbonate+citric/tataric acid- sodium citrate/tartrate +carbon dioxide +water
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formed by volcanic activity.rock is formed when magma cools and becomes a solid. granite -mourne mountains basalt-giants causeway
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formed by build up of compacting of broken rock material(fossils are found here) lime stone sandstone
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these rocks are formed when existed rocks are changed by great heat and pressure. slate marble
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remains of dead plants and animals over milion of years
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two plates
contimental /oceanic plates
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move past each other or slides under another.if released suddenly earthquakes occur
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richter scale
earthquakes are measured. it is determined on intensity of the seismic waves.-vibrations from earthquakes that travel through earth.
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plates moving a part or being pushed together.
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eg.simplest substances one type of atom
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substance which is made up of two elements chemically joined suplher dioxide.
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Periodic table
1866 English chemist John newlands. Russian Chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 who arranged the elements in order of their mass
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Group 1
alkali metals
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group 2
Alkaline earth metals
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Group 7
the halogens
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group 8/0
the noble gases
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structure of an atoms is made up of 3 main parts
neutron (0) proton (+1) electron (-1 in orbit)
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atomic number
lower two numbers
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Atomic number =number of protons/electrons
eg. 7/ 3 Atomic number -3- protons /electrons mass number7 neutrons 4
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Electrons filled
first 2 electrons...second 8 electrons
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when sodium place in water
floats,produces hydrogen,yellow flame
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when potassium place in water
floats,produces hydrogen gas,lilac flame
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lithium/sodium/potassium +water- lithium hydroxide+hydrogen
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metals will produce a metal salt and hydrogen gas when placed in dilute acid
zinc+hydrochloric acid-zinc chloride+hydrogen
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example 2
magnesium +sulphuric acid-magnesium sulphate+hydrogen
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reactivity series
potassium,sodium,calcium,magnesium,aleminium,zinc ,iron,tin lead,copper,mercury,silver,gold
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displacment reactions
more reactive metal can displace less reactive
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lead+zinc -no reaction
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magnesium +zinc sulphate-magnesium sulphate+zinc
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Sodium chloride
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magnesium oxide
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Magnesium chloride
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Sodium sulphate
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gain of magnesium+oxygen-magnesium oxide
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carbon+copper oxxide-carboon dioxide +copper
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fossil fuel
oli,coal and gas
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crude oil and natural gasses
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crude oil is a
mixture of different organic substances including gases and solids
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natural gas is mainly methane but has
ethane propane and butane
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name 2 hydrocarbon fuels
methane and ethane
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hydrocarbons releases
carbon and oxygen to form carbon dioxide eg.hydrocarbon+oxygen-carbon dioxide+water
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when methane is burn -equation
methane +oxygen-carbon dioxide +water
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what is hard water?
water that is hard to get lather from it.doesnt lather with soap.
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causes of hard water
dissolved calium/magnesium ions
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testing water for hardness
fill burette with soap solution, measure 20cm3 of the 1 water sample and put into conical flask.add spoap and shake to get this until u get lather that lasts for 5 secs.record the amount of soap needed and repeat for other water samples.
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how does hard water form?
rain water contains dissolved co2(weakly acidic-carbonic acid)acid reacts with limestone . a compound :calcium hydrogen carbonate formed.
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temporary hard water
can be softened by boiling/ion exchange/distilation
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permanent hard water
cant be softened by boiling
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boiling hard water
causes thermoldecomposition of calcium/magnesium....magnesium hydrogen carbonate-magnesium carboante +co2+water
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water is distilled off and condensed leaving behind calcium and magnesium compound.
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adding washing soda
causes the insoluble calcium carbonate to be precipted out.....calcium chloride+sodium carbonate -calcium carbonate +sodium chloride
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using ion exchanger
removes calcium/magnesium ions and replaces them with the other suitable ions.
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advantages of hard water
calcium:for strong bones and teeth. have marble arch caves...better for making beer
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disadvantages of hard water
fur builds up in kettles(calcium carbonate)-limestone builds up in water pipes-stains on washing-more expensive-forms scums
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go up from the ground
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hang from ceiling
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what is it formed by
when some water is lost by eveporation leaving a solid deposit of calcium carbonate.
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features of hard water
lime stone pavements,caves
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reactions of calcium and carbonates with acids
hydrochloric acids react with insoluble carbonates of magnesium and calcium to give a metal salt,carbon dioxide and water.......calcium/magnesium carbonate +hydrochloric acid -calcium/magnesium chloride+co2+water
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three main ways of dealing with waste
dumping (landfill sites:pollution) burning (global warming) recycling
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can be broken down by natural means/micro organisms eg.paper,cotton wool
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buy loose fruit and veg rather than pre packed- use rechargeble batterie s
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donate old books/clothes.cds-take carrier bags-send old phones to charities
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materials can be made into something new-paper,glass,tin can,alleminium can
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recycling glass
bottle bank-door step collection--collection and transport--processing of cullet(broken into small pieces)--furnace remoulding for further use
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problems of disposel of plastics
most are non biodegradable-cheap to produce so are rather dumped-recycling is costly
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making biodegradable plastic from starch
starch is made from long chains of glucose molecules joined together.when starch is dried it forms thin film of plastics.
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benefits of recycling
saves energy/raw materials eg.oil-reduces the demand for landfil sites
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providing different types of bins for household rubbish-encouraging seperation of metal/iron/steel from general waste/charging businesses for placing waste into landfill sites
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4 types of finger prints
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detection of finger prints practical
gently press finger on paper sprinkle some /talcum(on black paper/glass ude black carbon powder)/aluminium powder on the paper.use a brush to rub off excess a piece of tape on the fingerprint and remove
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counterfeit products -bank notes
quality of paper,watermarks,metal *****,bar coding,halograms
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what do shops use
ultraviolent (UV) light to test.if note is geniuine then paper will not fluoresce(lights up)
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how can crime be detected
hair,fibres,blood,finger prints
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flame test
check flame rod is clean(put into hottest park of flame) if doesnt change colour clean the rod by placing into hydrochloric acid and then heat in the flame again(do this until there's no change in colour)dip the flame test into sample & place inflame
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blue green
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brick red
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examples of acids


lemon juice,vinegar,ant,bee netle sting

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labratory acids


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lemon juice


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