Science of emotion - Overview of module and theories of emotion

HideShow resource information
Darwin, 1872 - theory
Treated emotions as discrete entities (anger, fear, disgust ...). A decade later, Wundt proposed that they were dimensional, varying in pleasantness & activation. Focused on structure of facial expression as the conveyor of specific emotions
1 of 27
Darwin, 1872 - methods
Evolutionary perspective; keen observation; and made use of the work of neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne. Focused on facial expression. Darwin’s emphasis on facial muscles was later used by Ekman in developing his facial action codes. Showed photo
2 of 27
Darwin, 1872 - legacy
Emotions can be seen as adaptations, which enable: Rapid orientation to the environment, and Coordination of systems (e.g., cardiovascular, muscular). Influenced later views of emotion as: States of readiness to act (e.g., Frijda, 2010)
3 of 27
James-Lange, 1884 - theory
He proposed that emotions are no more than the experience of the sets of bodily changes that occur in response to emotive cues in the world. When you meet a bear, you run, and your fear is the experience of the bodily changes involved.
4 of 27
James-Lange, 1884 - critiqued by...
Critiqued by Cannon (1927): Autonomic activity does not differentiate all emotion states. Separating viscera from brain in animals does not impair emotion behaviour. Body changes too slow to generate emotions.
5 of 27
James-Lange, 1884 - legacy
Theory is still influential, especially in views of embodied emotion. Damasio’s (1996) Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Bodily reactions to emotional events are recorded as somatic markers. These somatic markers are learned and guide our decision making.
6 of 27
Cannon-Bard Theory, 1928
Brain involved in generating emotion: Thalamus and hypothalamus involved in producing an emotion response to stimuli, and This response is inhibited by the neocortex.
7 of 27
Cannon-Bard Theory, 1928 - influenced by
Lesion studies e.g., Head – thalamic lesions produced excessive pain reaction. Electrical stimulation studies e.g., Hess – able to induce anger, fear, curiosity, and lethargy in animals; identified regions for pleasure-approach and distress-avoida
8 of 27
Cannon-Bard Theory, 1928 - legacy
Hypothalamus shown to be part of reward network in the brain. Cortex modulates output of hypothalamus and limbic system, allowing emotion control.
9 of 27
Arnold, 1954 - theory
Appraisal: In 1954, Magda Arnold (with Gasson) proposed that emotions are based on appraising events i.e. evaluating them. Emotions seen as relational: Relate self to an object. Appraisal involves attraction to or repulsion from an object
10 of 27
Arnold, 1954 - legacy
Discrete appraisal: Arnold’s ideas were further developed by Lazarus (1991) in his research on stress. His view was that people appraise how good or bad an event is in the context of their ongoing relations with the environment.
11 of 27
Schachter & Singer, 1962 - theory
experiment: Showed that uninformed participants injected with adrenaline felt and acted happy if they were in the presence of an accomplice who acted happy, but felt and acted angry if the accomplice acted angry. Pp's who were informed did not becom
12 of 27
Schachter & Singer, 1962 - evaluation
Arousal + Appraisal: Their theory was that emotion arises from physiological arousal and appraisal. Not been replicated. But they did show cognitive, social and physiological influences on emotion.
13 of 27
Schachter & Singer, 1962 - legacy
Other studies have shown that emotions can be wrongly attributed to different aspects of a situation. e.g., Dutton and Aron (1974) – male participants were more likely to contact female interviewer if they met her after crossing a suspension bridge
14 of 27
Freud’s Theory
Freud saw emotions as being at the core of many pathologies. Uses the emotions that a client expresses in discussing his or her life to help reveal and express the unconscious thoughts and emotions that arise from the pathology. Focused on trauma
15 of 27
Freud - legacy
Most therapies focus on emotions. Inspired Bowlby’s attachment theory which is concerned with the experience and expression of emotions in infants as part of their social development.
16 of 27
Goffman, 1961 - theory
Dramaturgical perspective: People give presentations of themselves to each other, and in doing so derive their sense of self. Role-specific: Emotions constructed within specific roles (e.g. with your family vs. with your friends). Acting
17 of 27
Goffman, 1961 - legacy
Hochschild was influenced by Goffman’s ideas in her work on emotional labour: Employees, especially in service roles, seen as having to play roles in which they express certain emotions to clients and customers. This can cause problems
18 of 27
Who says emotions are...evolutionary adaptations
Darwin, 1872
19 of 27
Who says emotions are...bodily responses
James-Lange, 1884
20 of 27
Who says emotions are...brain responses
Cannon-Bard, 1928
21 of 27
Who says emotions are...biopsychosocial
Schachter & Singer, 1962
22 of 27
Who says emotions are...evaluations of our environment
Arnold, 1954
23 of 27
Who says emotions are...gateways to our problems
Freud
24 of 27
Who says emotions are...Social constructions of ourselves
Goffman, 1961
25 of 27
***Darwin (1872) traced some...***
expressions to infancy. He proposed that crying is an indication of screaming in infancy, however it is partially inhibited in adults.
26 of 27
***James (1890) (james-lange)***
emphasised the way in which emotions move us bodily. For example, people may shake, sweat or have an increased heart rate. James argued that the core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses.
27 of 27

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Darwin, 1872 - methods

Back

Evolutionary perspective; keen observation; and made use of the work of neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne. Focused on facial expression. Darwin’s emphasis on facial muscles was later used by Ekman in developing his facial action codes. Showed photo

Card 3

Front

Darwin, 1872 - legacy

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

James-Lange, 1884 - theory

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

James-Lange, 1884 - critiqued by...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Applied Art & Design resources:

See all Applied Art & Design resources »See all q resources »