Science B1

Flash cards for science

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Classification
Organisms are classified into discrete groups starting with kingdom and ending with species. This causes some problems with intermediate organisms, hybrids and asexual organisms.
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Classification
Organisms can eat each other (predators), gain from each other (mutualism) and feed off each other (parasites).
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Classification
Organisms are classified using natural systems; this gives information about evolutionary relationships.
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Classification
Similar organisms will compete with each other for food. Organisms that share the same niche or are in the same species will compete more.
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Energy flow and Recycling
Pyramids of bio mass are harder to construct but always form pyramids. Energy is lost from each stage of a food chain. Food chains are limited to a small number of trophic levels.
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Energy flow and Recycling
Pyramids of biomass and numbers can show feeding relationships.
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Energy flow and Recycling
The recycling of Nitrogen involves the action of four types of bacteria.
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Energy flow and Recycling
The recycling of Carbon involves photosynthesis, feeding, respiration and decomposition.
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Adaption and Natural Selection
Organisms in hot and dry areas have adaptations to increase heat loss, move on sand and cope with lack of water. Heat loss from organisms depends on their surface area to volume ratio. Organisms in cold areas are adapted to keep warm and move on snow
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Adaption and Natural Selection
Darwin's theory of natural selection involves variation, competition, survival of the fittest and selective reproduction.
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Adaption and Natural Selection
Darwins theory was largely criticised at first but is now widely accepted.
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Adaption and Natural Selection
Examples of natural selection today are warfarin resistance in rats, antibiotic resistance in bacteria and frequency of colour in peppered moths.
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Population, Pollution and Sustainability
Human population has been increasing expotentially. This has led to an increase in pollutants such as carbon dioxide causing global warming, sulfur dioxide causing acid rain and CFC's breaking down the ozone layer.
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Population, Pollution and Sustainability
Removing waste, producing food and supplying energy in a sustainable way will help to conserve habitats and organisms.
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Population, Pollution and Sustainability
Conservation is important to protect our food supply, prevent damage to food chains,protect organisms for medical uses and protect habitats for people to visit.
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Population, Pollution and Sustainability
Pollution can be measured using direct methods or by using indicator species.
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Making Crude Oil Useful
Crude oil is a mixture of many different compounds.
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Making Crude Oil Useful
Fossil fuels are finite resources because they are no longer being made or are being made extremely slowly. They are non-renewable resources as they are being used up faster than they are being made.
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MakingCrude Oil Useful
Cracking helps an oil refinery match its supply of useful products such as petrol with the demand for them.Cracking converts large alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecules.
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Making Crude Oil Useful
Hydrocarbons with bigger molecules have stronger intermolecular forces between their molecules, and so have higher boiling points than hydrocarbons with smaller molecules.
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Making Crude Oil Useful
Crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. It is heated near the bottom of a fractioning column. Fractions with low boiling points 'exit' at the top. Fractions with high boiling points 'exit' at the bottom.
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Fuels and Clean Air
If hydrocarbons burn in a plentiful supply of air, carbon dioxide and water are made. In an experiment, carbon dioxide can be tested for with limewater; it turns the limewater milky.
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Fuels and Clean Air
The present day atmosphere contains 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and 0.035% carbon dioxide.
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Fuels and Clean Air
Key factors that need to be considered when choosing a fuel are energy value, availability, storage, toxicity, pollution caused and ease of use.
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Fuels and Clean Air
The original atmosphere came from the degassing of early volcanoes which were rich in water and carbon dioxide. The water condensed to form oceans. Photosynthetic organisms helped to increase the level of oxygen through photosynthesis.
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Fuels and Clean Air
Photosynthesis, respiration and combustion are processes in the carbon cycle.
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Polymers
A hydrocarbon is a compound of hydrogen and carbon atoms only.
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Polymers
Alkanes are hydrocarbons which contain single covalent bonds only. Alkenes are hydrocarbons which contain a double covalent bond between carbon atoms.
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Polymers
Addition polymers are made when alkene monomer molecules react together under high pressure and with a catalyst.
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Polymers
Nylon and GORE-TEX are polymers with suitable properties for particular uses. Nylon is tough, lightweight and keeps water and UV light out. GORE-TEX has all these properties but allows water vapour to pass out so that sweat does not condense.
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Polymers
Plastics that have weak intermolecular forces between the polymer molecules can easily be stretched as the polymer molecules can slide over each other. Rigid polymers have cross-linking bridges.
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Food, Smells and Paint
Protein molecules in eggs and meat denature when they are cooked. The change of shape of the protein molecule is permanent.
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Food, Smells and Paint
Emulsifiers are molecules with a water-loving (hydrophilic) part and an oil loving (hydrophobic) part. The hydrophilic end bonds to water molecules and the hydrophobic end bonds to oil molecules to keep them from separating.
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Food, Smells and Paint
Perfumes need to be able to evaporate so that they can easily reach the nose. To evaporate, particles need sufficient kinetic energy to overcome their attraction to other molecules in the liquid
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Food, Smells and Paint
Paints are colloids because the particles are mixed and dispersed throughout a liquid but are not dissolved in it. Thermochromic pigments change coloru
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Organisms can eat each other (predators), gain from each other (mutualism) and feed off each other (parasites).

Back

Classification

Card 3

Front

Organisms are classified using natural systems; this gives information about evolutionary relationships.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Similar organisms will compete with each other for food. Organisms that share the same niche or are in the same species will compete more.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Pyramids of bio mass are harder to construct but always form pyramids. Energy is lost from each stage of a food chain. Food chains are limited to a small number of trophic levels.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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