Science and ideology

What is an open belief system- Popper
Science is open to criticism and reason because it follows principles of falsification, avoids the fallacy of induction, knowledgeis cumalitive and it disregards false claims helping knowledge grow
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What is the fallacy of induction
Just becuase you observe something, doesnt make it true
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Close belief system-Horan
Religion is a closed system becuase it discourages criticism, when shown contrary evidence religion will find ways to get out of the problem with special clauses
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Self sustaining belief systems- Polyani- Grallatory
Beliefs are justified in relation to other beliefs within the system, not from external evidence
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Self sustaining belief systems- Polyani- Subsidory evidence
Falsity of a claim is explained hroguh an additional explanation that makes exception of the false claim
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Self sustaining belief systems- Polyani- Denies legitimacy to rivals
Other theories are dismissed entirely thus thier criticisms dont count
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CUDOS norms- Merton
The four key values of science help knowledge to grow and keep it as a key institution in modern society
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CUDOS norms-Communism
Scientific knowledge is not private property and is to be shared
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CUDOS norms- Universalism
Truth/falsility is determined by objective standards, not personal choice
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CUDOS norms- Disinteredness
Seeking knowledge for its own gain not personal gain
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CUDOS norms- Organised scepticism
All heories are open to criticism and scrutiny
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Kuhn- Challenges openness of science
Observes that scientists often refuse to consider challenges to their existing knowledge becuase of work with paradigms this occurs, similar to how religion works within strick paradigms
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Kuhn- Scientific paradigms rigidity
Findings that fall outside the strict paradigms are likely to be rejected by the community, becuase of the paradigm it is difficult to work outside of the box
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Kuhn- Antiparadigm sceintists
Idea that some scientists knowingly work outside of the paradigm, consequently finding it ard to obtain a research or teaching post. Scientists sometimes gather enough information to cause a paradigm shift, this can take decades
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Woolgar- little green men
Ethnomethodologist. Scientists when confronted with evidenc from experiment decide what it means and do so by devising and applying theories they also pursuade others to accept their interpretation
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Woolgar- Little green men- whats a scientific fact?
A scientific fact is a social construction or belief system that scientists are able to persuade their colleagues to share- not necessarily a real thing
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Knor- cetina
Interpretivist, knowledge is socially constructed, invention of new instruments allows scientists to make new discoveries/observations.
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Evan Pritchard- Azande tribe
Closed belief system, hostile to outsiders with a fixed set of self sustaining unfalsafiable beliefs
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Ideology what does it mean?
As the ideas and beliefs in a particular society, often those of the dominant ruling class
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How do Marxists see ideology?
See ideology as the set of ruling class ideas that keep workers in their place.
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How do feminists see ideology?
See ideology as both the set of ideas that keep women oppressed (patriarchal ideology) and a set of potentially liberating beliefs (feminism).
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How do liberals see ideology
Tend to see ideology as totalitarian and oppressive- Stalin's Russia and Hitler's Germany both has official ideologies which were repressive. Pluralists reject the idea that there can be a monopoly of truth
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Marx and ideology
Ruling ideologies are needed to create a false consciousness for the workers. Makes them belief their position is fair. Function of ideology was to maintain oppresion without rebellion, only ruling class has ideology as they need to create illusions
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Gramsci and ideology
Hegemonic ideas dominate, ruling class ideas becoming the comon sense of the afe, nobody questions common sense thus dont question working classes right to rule, strugle against hegemony has to be a alternative proletarian hegemony
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Althuser on ideology
Argued elements of society like education were ideological state appatus, the ISAs are a tool of capitalism, used to justify and reproduce class inequalities
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Mannheim ideology- Ruling class ideology
A set of beliefs used to justify and perpetuate an existing social order
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Mannheim ideology- Utopian
A utopian set of beliefs about how the world could be organised in the future, utopian ideologies tend to be formed by oppressed groups who want radical change
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Mannheim- Distortion of reality
Both types of ideology distort reality, ruling class ideology is a distortion to create illusion of fairness, utopian is just a wish image of the future
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Example of a ruling class ideology
Functionalism could be seen as one as it seeks to justify existing society its emphasis on agreement, consensus and stability
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Example of a utopian ideology
Mrxism can be seen as one with its own vision of an ideal future society after the ruling class has been overthrown, the ideal vision is used to criticise our society
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Traditional view of science is
It is objective, scientific enquiry is evidence based and open
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the fallacy of induction


Just becuase you observe something, doesnt make it true

Card 3


Close belief system-Horan


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Card 4


Self sustaining belief systems- Polyani- Grallatory


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Card 5


Self sustaining belief systems- Polyani- Subsidory evidence


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