Science Additional Chemistry

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What are examples of 4 rate of reaction experiments?
1) reaction hydrochloric acid and marble chips 2) magnesium metal and dilute HCL 3) sodium thiosulfate and HCL 4) decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
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How do you calculate masses in reactions?
1) wrie balanced equation 2) work out relative formula mass 3) divide to get one, then multiply to get all
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How do you calculate the % mass of the elemnt in a compound?
Percentage mass = relative atomix mass x number of atoms/relative formula mass of whole compound
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What arrangement are the ions in ionic bonding called?
Giant structure or giant lattice
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What are thermosoftening polymers?
It is easy to melt, when it cools, the polymer hardens to a new shape and it is remouldable
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What are isotopes?
The same element except for and extra neutron or two
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Whats the atomic number?
Number of protons
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What increases the rate of reaction?
More collisions ... higher temperature, higher concentration, large surface area and adding a catalyst
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What is electrolysis used to do?
Removes aluminium from it's ore
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What is cryolite used for?
Lowed temperature and costs
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What is electroplating?
Uses electrolysis to coat the surface of one metal with another metal e.g. Electroplating silver onto a brass cup
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Uses for electroplating are?
Decoration -attractive, cheaper and/or conduction
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Explain the electrolysis of molten lead bromide?
Positive ions attracted to negative electrode and they gain electrodes (reduction) - lead is at the negative electrode negativity vin attracted the the positive electrode Bromine is made at the positive electrode
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What is electrolysis?
Splitting up with electricity
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Examples of bases?
Metal oxides and metal hydroxides
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What happens when a metal reacts with an acid?
Makes a salt - acid + metal ---> salt + hydrogen
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Acids and bases equation is?
Acid + base ---> salt + water
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What do acids and bases do?
Neutralise each other
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What is an indicator?
It changes colour depending on the acidity of a solution
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What numbers does a pH scale go up to?
0 - 14
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What is an endothermic reaction?
It is a reaction where heat is taken in, it takes in energy from the surroundings and shown by the fall in temperature
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What is an exoteric reaction?
It is a reaction where heat is given out, it transfers energy to the surroundings and it is shown by a rise in temperature
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What is a catalyst?
It is a substance which speeds up a reaction
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What is the force called that holds the ions together?
Electrostatic force
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How are ionic compounds formed?
It forms when metal react with non metals
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How can you represent atoms and ions involved when forming ionic bonds?
Dot and cross diagrams
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What is the overall charge of an ionic compound?
0 zero
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How do we work out the percentage yield?
Percentage yield = actual yield (grams) / predicted yield (grams) X 100
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What is a reversible reaction?
It is one where the products react to make the original reactants
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How can artificial colours be separated?
Paper chromatography
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What are the advantages of using machines to analyse unknown substances?
It is very sensitive, very fast and very accurate
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What 4 things do rate of reactions depend on?
1) temperature 2) concentration 3) catalyst 4) surface area of solids
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What ways can the rate of reaction be measured?
1) precipitation 2) change in mass 3) volume of gas given off
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What is precipitation?
It is when very very small particles or a solid form in a aqueous reaction
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Ho are metals formed?
They are formed when atomic payers are built up on top of each other to make a regular pattern
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What is a macromolecule?
They are giant covalent structures held to get her by a network of covalent bonds
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What is ionic bonding?
It is a transferring electrons
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What is an intermolecular force?
It is a weak force of attraction between the atoms in covalent bonds
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How can an ionic compound conduct electricity?
They can conduct electricity when they are molten or in a solution because the ions are free to move around
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How do you break an ionic bond?
You can do it by applying lots of energy to break the electrostatic force
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Do ionic compound have high or low melting and boiling points?
They have a high melting and boiling point
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How are covalent bonds formed?
They are formed when non-metals react together and their atoms share electrons
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What is a yield?
It is the atom of product that you get from a reaction
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What does OIL RIG mean?
Oxidation Is Lose Reduction Is Gain
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What is relative formula mass?
All the relative atom masses added together
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What is a mole?
One mile of something is equal to its relative formula mass in grams
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What are thermosetting polymers?
It has crossings which hold chains together in a solid structure, it doesn't soften when heated and it is strong hard and rigid
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What is the relative atomic mass?
It is the bigger number on the periodic table and it tells you how heavy an atom is
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Ho can polythene be made using different conditions?
It has a low density made by heating ether to 200 degrees Celsius under high pressure (flexible, used for bags and bottles) - High density made at lower temperatures and pressure with catalyst (more rigid, used for water tanks and drain pipes)
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What are new uses of nanoparticles?
It is used for industrial catalyst (large surface area) , it tests water purity and it is used for sun cream and deodorant
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What are nanoparticles?
They are 1-100 manometers, they contain a few hindered atoms and they're really really tiny
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What is a shape memory alloy? What is an example?
It is a metal that can be re-shaped and remember it's original shape when heated. An example is dental braces
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What are alloys?
They are two or more metals mixed together
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What is a metallic bond?
It involves free electrons, it is a good conductor of heat and electricity, layers of atoms that slide over each other and they can bend and be shaped
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What happens to a covalent bond once it's shared it's electrons?
It gives them the electronic structure of a noble gas (group 0)
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What is covalent bonding?
It is where you share electrons
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What is a compound?
It is 2 or more elements are chemically combined
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What is the mass number?
It is the total number of protons and neutrons
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How can you measure the rate of reaction?
Rate of reaction = amount of reactant used / time
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How can gas chromatography be used to identify substances?
It separates mixture the gas carri s substances through solid packed column it trav le at different speeds the time taken to teach detector the number of peaks shows different compound and it is linked to a mass spectrometer
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do you calculate masses in reactions?

Back

1) wrie balanced equation 2) work out relative formula mass 3) divide to get one, then multiply to get all

Card 3

Front

How do you calculate the % mass of the elemnt in a compound?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What arrangement are the ions in ionic bonding called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are thermosoftening polymers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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