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Classification
Classification means grouping things by their features or characteristics. The more characteristics that are used to group similar organisms together, the more reliable is the classification
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Kingdom
Group of similar phyla e.g Animalia
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Phylum
group of similar classes e.g chordata
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Class
Group of similar orders e.g mammalia
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Order
Group of similar families e.g Carnivora
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Family
Group of similar genera e.g Canidae (dog Family)
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Genus
Group of similar species e.g canis
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Species
Organisms that have most characteristics in common
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Anmalia
Multicellular (body made of many cells) Have no cell walls no chlorophyll in cells feed Heterotrophically (Eat other organisms
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Plantae
Multicellular, cell walls,chlorophyll, feed Autrophically (make own food)
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Fungi
Multicellular, Cells walls, no chlorophyll feed Saprophytically (Digest food outside the body)
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Vertebrates and Invertebrates
The phylum chordata contain animals that have a supporting rod running the length of their body. Many animals are vertebrates (animals with backbone)
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Oxygen absorbton
blue area: use of gills green area: use of lungs Note: young amphibians use gills, but adult amphibians use lungs.
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Fertilisation
Inside female body (internal) outside females body (external)
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Reproduction
young born lives (vivparous) lay eggs (Oviparous)
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thermoregulation
control own body temperature (Homotherm) body temperature varies with environment temperature (Polkilotherm)
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species
A species is a group of organisms that can breed with each other and produce fertile offspring. A few species can interbreed (breed with other species) to produce hybrid offspring, but often these Hybrids are sterile (cannot produce offspring).
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Problem 1
Some species reproduce asexually from parts of their body or by dividing in two If we do not see two organisms breeding together we cannot be sure if they are the same species
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Problem 2
Some organisms from closely related species can interbreed and produce hybrid offspring that are fertile
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A key
Based on obvious characteristics can help identify different species. This is a key for some big cats
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Binomial Classification
Every species has a unique Binomial name, for example the African lion Panthera leo. Bionomial names are useful because other people know exactly which species you mean. You can see from the genus which species are very closely related.
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panthera leo
Genus name: shared with very similar species. species name: unique to African lion. The leopard ( Panthera Pardus) and the tiger (Panthera Tigris) are closely related to the lion so have the same genus name.
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Classification Complications
Classifying an organism within a particular species may not easy. Dogs show a wide range of variation but all belong to one species. Duck species will occasionally interbreed to produce individuals with a range of characteristics.
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Ring Species
The European herring gull and lesser black-backed gull rarely interbreed,even where they nest together. So we say they are different species. But they are the end of a ring species of gulls that surrounds the North Pole. Neighbouring species of gulls
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Group of similar phyla e.g Animalia

Back

Kingdom

Card 3

Front

group of similar classes e.g chordata

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Group of similar orders e.g mammalia

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Group of similar families e.g Carnivora

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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