schizophrenia ; sz

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what % world suffers?
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more commonly diagnosed in which gender?
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in which areas?
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and in what clasS?
working class
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- classification of sz
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what is the defining characteristic?
there isn't one
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what are the two major systems for classification?
DSM-5 / ICD-10
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for the DSM-5 system what must be present for dagnosis?
one of the positive symptoms
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whereas what are sufficient under ICD?
2+ negative
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ICD-10 also recognises what?
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like paranoid sz is characterised by?
powerful delusions / hallucinations
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hebephrenic sz?
promarily negative
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catatonic sz?
disturbance to movement
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what about DSM-5?
used to recognise subtypes but not any more
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- positive symptoms
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what is a positive symptom?
one that adds experiences beyond ordinary experiences
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+ hallucination
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unusual what kind of experience
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some related to environment while others?
no resemblance to what senses picking up
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voices heard taling to sufferer are often saying?
negative things
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+ delusions
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also known as?
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what are delusions?
irrational beliefs
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take range of forms mostly thinking ur a famous figure like?
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delusions commonly involve?
being persecuted perhaps bu gov / aliens / superpowers
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another class of delusions concerns?
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sufferers may believe what about them / part of them?
under external control
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delusions may make sufferers behave in ways that are viewed how by others?
vvv werid
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although vast majority sufferers aren't agressive but instead?
more likley to be victims > perpetrators of violence
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- negative symptoms
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what are negative symptoms?
loss usual abilities / experiences
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+ avolition
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described as finding it difficult to do what?
begin / eep ip with goal-directed activity
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sufferers often have sharply reduced motivation to?
carry out large number activities
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andreason identified which 3 identifying signs of avolition?
poor hygeine / lack persistence in work / lack energy
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+ speech poverty
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why do ICD-10 recognite speech poverty as negative symption?
emphasis is on reduction in amount and quality of speech
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somedimes accompanied by delay in?
sufferer's verbal responses in conversation
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nowadays though the DMS places emphasis on speech?
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in which speech becomes?
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or speaker does what?
changes topic mid-scentence
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classified by DSM-5 positive / negative?
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:( reliability
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an important measure of reliability is inter-rater reliability which is?
extent to which different assessors agree on assessments
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in case of diagnosis this means extent to which?
two mental health professionsalsl arrive @ same diagnosis
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cheniaux had 2 psychiatrists independently diagnose how many patients?
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using which criteria?
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inter-rater rleiability was?
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with one psych diagnosing 26 DSM and how many ICD?
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and the other diagnosing 24 ICD nad how many DSM?
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poor reliability is a weakness of?
diagnosis of sz
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what is validity?
the extent to which we're measuring what we intend to
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one standard way to assess validity of diagnosis is?
criterion validity
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which asks what question?
do different assessment systems arrive at the same diagnosis for the same patient
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with the cheniaux study we can see sz is much more likely to be diagnosed with which criterion?
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this suggests what?
either overdiagnosed in ICD or underdiagnosed in DSM
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either way this is poor validity and a weakness of?
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:( co-morbidity
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what does morbidity refer to?
medical condt or how common it is
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so co-morbidity is the phenomenon that?
2+ condts occur together
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if two conditions occur together lots this calls into question what?
validity of diagnosis / classification
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might actually be a single condition
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buckley concluded that around what % sz patients also had depression?
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and substance abuse?
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this poses challenge for which 2 things about sz?
both classification and diagnosis
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in diagnosis if 1/2 sz patients also diagnosed w/ depression maybe what?
we are just p bad @ telling difference
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in terms of classification if severed dpr looks lot like sz what might be better?
sningle condition
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confusing picture is weakness of what about sz?
diagnosis + classification
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:( symptom overlap
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considerable overlap like share what with bipolar?
positive symptoms like delusions and negative like avolition
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this calls in to question what about classification + diagnosis of sz?
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under ICD patient may be sz but under DSM?
could be bipolar
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unsuprtising given?
symptom overlap
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even suggests what about sz + bipolar?
might just be same condition
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- gender bias in diagnosis
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longenecker et al reviewed studies of prevalence of sz and conclided that since '80s what happene?
more men diagnosed than women
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may simply biologically be why?
men more genetically vulnerable
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however another possible explanation is gender bias why?
appears female patients typically function better than men, more likely to work and have good fambly relationships
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cotton found women with sz were more likely to?
work / good family relationships
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why may this high functioning explain why women haven't had sz where men had?
bc better interpersonal functioning may bias practicioners to underdiagnose them
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there are two reasons for this?
symptoms masked altogether / quality of functioning makes case too mild a diagnosis
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:( cultural bias in diagnosis
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who are several times more likely that white people to be diagnosed?
african americans / afro-caribbeans
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why is this almost certainly not due to genetic vulnerabiltiy?
bc rates in africa / west indes not rlly that high
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what is one issue with culture and the positive symptom of hearing voices?
more acceptable bc of cultural beliefs and connection with ancestors
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and so the people are more ready to?
accept and acknowledge the experiences
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when reported to a psych from a different cilture these experiences are liekly to be seen?
bizarre and irrational
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what % world suffers?



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more commonly diagnosed in which gender?


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in which areas?


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and in what clasS?


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