schizophrenia ; psychological therapies

PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES
DFGFD
1 of 67
- cbt
dfdf
2 of 67
usually takes place for between how many sessions?
5-20
3 of 67
aim of CBT generally involves helping patient identify + change?
irrational thoughts
4 of 67
may involve which two things?
argument / discussion of how likely patients beliefs are to be true
5 of 67
will this get rid of symptoms?
no
6 of 67
but it will?
make patients better able to cope
7 of 67
+ how it helps
dfgd
8 of 67
patients helped to make sense of what?
how delusions + hallucinations impact on their feelings + behaviour
9 of 67
offering psych explanations for delusions / hallucinations can do what?
reduce anxiety
10 of 67
delusions can also be challenged so patient can come to learn?
beliefs not based on reality
11 of 67
- family therapy
dfgd
12 of 67
aims to improve what?
quality of communication and interaction between family members
13 of 67
some therapists see family as root cause because of which two theories?
double bind / schizophrenogenic mother
14 of 67
nowadys tho most fambly therapists concerned with doing what?
reducing stress within family than might contribute to relapse
15 of 67
in particular aims to reduce levels of?
expressed emotion
16 of 67
+ how it helps
dfgd
17 of 67
pharoah et al identified what?
range of strategies by which fam therapists aim to improve unctioning of family
18 of 67
like forming what with all family members?
therapeutic alliance
19 of 67
reducing stress of?
caring for sz relative
20 of 67
improving ability of family to?
anticipate and solve problems
21 of 67
pharoah et al suggest these strategies work by reducing what?
levels of stress / expressed emotion
22 of 67
while increasing chances of?
patients' complying with medication
23 of 67
this combination of benefits tends to reduce likelihood of?
relapse and re-admission
24 of 67
- token economies
dfgd
25 of 67
reward systems used to do what?
manage behaviour of patients w/ sz
26 of 67
in particualr those who developed patterns of maladaptive behaviour through?
spending long periods in psych hospitals
27 of 67
inder these circumstances its common for patients to do what?
develop bad hygeinge / remain in pjs all day
28 of 67
modifying these bad habits doesn't cure sz but?
improves quality of life and makes more likely can live outside hospital
29 of 67
+ tokens
dfgd
30 of 67
idea is that they are given immediately to patients when they have?
carried out a desirable behaviour that's been targeted for reinforcement
31 of 67
why is the immediacy imortant?
prevents 'delay discounting' (reduced effect of delayed reward)
32 of 67
+ rewards
dgdf
33 of 67
tokens can be exhanged for?
tangible rewards
34 of 67
token economies kind of behavioural therapy based on?
operant conditionin
35 of 67
why are tokens secondary reinforcers?
ony have value once patient has learned they can be used to obtain rewards
36 of 67
EVALUATION
DFGDF
37 of 67
:) evidence for effectiveness
sfdfgd
38 of 67
jauhar reviewed results of how many studies of cbt for sz?
34
39 of 67
they concluded what baout cbt?
significant but small effect on both positive and negative symptoms
40 of 67
pharoah et al reviewed the evidence for what?
effectiveness of family therapy for families of sz sufferers
41 of 67
and concluded?
moderate evidence to show fam therapy significantly reduces hospital readmission over the coirse of the year
42 of 67
and improves?
qol for fam + patients
43 of 67
however also noted what resaerch methodsy?
inconsistent results / quality of evidence problems
44 of 67
review of evidence for token economies fd only how many random allocation studies?
3
45 of 67
with how many total patients?
only 110
46 of 67
random allocation is important in?
matching patients to treatment and ctrl grps
47 of 67
how many of the three studies showed symptom improvement?
1
48 of 67
and none yielded?
useful info about behaviour change
49 of 67
overall what is the limitation here>
only modest support for effectiveness and sz remains one of the harder mental health problems to treat
50 of 67
:( treatments improve quality of life but don't cure
dfgd
51 of 67
how does CBT help?
allows patients to make sense and challenge symptoms
52 of 67
family therapy helps by?
reducing stress of living w/ sz in a fambly
53 of 67
and token economies?
make patients' behaviour more socially acceptable so can better re-intergrate into society
54 of 67
these things shouldn;t be confused with what?
actually curing sz
55 of 67
so do bio treatments cure sz?
nope
56 of 67
:( ethical issues
dfgdf
57 of 67
what in particualr is controversial?
token economy
58 of 67
why?
priveliges become more available to those with mild symptoms and less for more severe
59 of 67
why?
severe have arder time compluing
60 of 67
why may cbt raise issues?
challenges paranoia but at what point does this interfere with freedom of thought
61 of 67
EVAL EXTRA
DFGDF
62 of 67
:( quality of evidence for effectiveness
dfgd
63 of 67
what kind of studies have found more positive results than above?
small scale studies w/ mental health professionals comparing before and after
64 of 67
what kinds of problems do these studies have?
methodological
65 of 67
like?
lack ctrl grp / non-random allocation
66 of 67
other way of looking at it could be the strictly controlled studies are doing what?
being 2 pessimistic fam
67 of 67

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- cbt

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dfdf

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usually takes place for between how many sessions?

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Card 4

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aim of CBT generally involves helping patient identify + change?

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may involve which two things?

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