schizophrenia ; psychological therapies

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- cbt
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usually takes place for between how many sessions?
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aim of CBT generally involves helping patient identify + change?
irrational thoughts
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may involve which two things?
argument / discussion of how likely patients beliefs are to be true
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will this get rid of symptoms?
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but it will?
make patients better able to cope
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+ how it helps
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patients helped to make sense of what?
how delusions + hallucinations impact on their feelings + behaviour
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offering psych explanations for delusions / hallucinations can do what?
reduce anxiety
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delusions can also be challenged so patient can come to learn?
beliefs not based on reality
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- family therapy
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aims to improve what?
quality of communication and interaction between family members
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some therapists see family as root cause because of which two theories?
double bind / schizophrenogenic mother
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nowadys tho most fambly therapists concerned with doing what?
reducing stress within family than might contribute to relapse
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in particular aims to reduce levels of?
expressed emotion
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+ how it helps
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pharoah et al identified what?
range of strategies by which fam therapists aim to improve unctioning of family
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like forming what with all family members?
therapeutic alliance
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reducing stress of?
caring for sz relative
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improving ability of family to?
anticipate and solve problems
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pharoah et al suggest these strategies work by reducing what?
levels of stress / expressed emotion
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while increasing chances of?
patients' complying with medication
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this combination of benefits tends to reduce likelihood of?
relapse and re-admission
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- token economies
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reward systems used to do what?
manage behaviour of patients w/ sz
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in particualr those who developed patterns of maladaptive behaviour through?
spending long periods in psych hospitals
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inder these circumstances its common for patients to do what?
develop bad hygeinge / remain in pjs all day
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modifying these bad habits doesn't cure sz but?
improves quality of life and makes more likely can live outside hospital
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+ tokens
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idea is that they are given immediately to patients when they have?
carried out a desirable behaviour that's been targeted for reinforcement
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why is the immediacy imortant?
prevents 'delay discounting' (reduced effect of delayed reward)
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+ rewards
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tokens can be exhanged for?
tangible rewards
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token economies kind of behavioural therapy based on?
operant conditionin
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why are tokens secondary reinforcers?
ony have value once patient has learned they can be used to obtain rewards
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:) evidence for effectiveness
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jauhar reviewed results of how many studies of cbt for sz?
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they concluded what baout cbt?
significant but small effect on both positive and negative symptoms
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pharoah et al reviewed the evidence for what?
effectiveness of family therapy for families of sz sufferers
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and concluded?
moderate evidence to show fam therapy significantly reduces hospital readmission over the coirse of the year
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and improves?
qol for fam + patients
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however also noted what resaerch methodsy?
inconsistent results / quality of evidence problems
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review of evidence for token economies fd only how many random allocation studies?
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with how many total patients?
only 110
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random allocation is important in?
matching patients to treatment and ctrl grps
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how many of the three studies showed symptom improvement?
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and none yielded?
useful info about behaviour change
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overall what is the limitation here>
only modest support for effectiveness and sz remains one of the harder mental health problems to treat
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:( treatments improve quality of life but don't cure
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how does CBT help?
allows patients to make sense and challenge symptoms
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family therapy helps by?
reducing stress of living w/ sz in a fambly
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and token economies?
make patients' behaviour more socially acceptable so can better re-intergrate into society
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these things shouldn;t be confused with what?
actually curing sz
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so do bio treatments cure sz?
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:( ethical issues
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what in particualr is controversial?
token economy
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priveliges become more available to those with mild symptoms and less for more severe
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severe have arder time compluing
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why may cbt raise issues?
challenges paranoia but at what point does this interfere with freedom of thought
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:( quality of evidence for effectiveness
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what kind of studies have found more positive results than above?
small scale studies w/ mental health professionals comparing before and after
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what kinds of problems do these studies have?
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lack ctrl grp / non-random allocation
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other way of looking at it could be the strictly controlled studies are doing what?
being 2 pessimistic fam
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- cbt



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usually takes place for between how many sessions?


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Card 4


aim of CBT generally involves helping patient identify + change?


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may involve which two things?


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