schizophrenia ; psychological explanations

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- family dysfunction
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psychologists have attempted to link sz to what?
child/adulthood exps of living in dysfunctional fambly
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+ schizophrenogenic mother
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fromm-reichmann proposed this theory based on what approach
psychodynamic (of ******* course)
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based on what acounts?
those she heard from her patients about childhoods
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fromm-reichmann noted many patients sopke of a particular type of parent which she called?
schizophrenogenic mother
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according to her what characteristcs does she have?
cold / rejecting / controlling
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and tends to create family climate characterised by?
tension + secrecu
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this leads to distrust that later develops into?
paranoid delusions + sz
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+ double-bind theory
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bateson agreed family climate is important but emphasised what?
role of communication style w/in family
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developing child regularly finds themselves trapped in situations where they fear?
doign the wrong thing
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but recieve?
mixed messages about what it is
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and feel unable to do what?
comment on unfairness of situation / seek clarification
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when they 'get it wrong' (which is often) child is punished by?
withdrawal of love
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this leaves them with an understanding of the world as?
confusing / dangerous
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and this is reflected in symptoms like?
disorganised thinking / paranoid delustions
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bateson clear this was neither of which two things?
main type communication in family / only factor
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rather he said it was just a?
risk factor
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+ expressed emotion and sz
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what is expressed emotion?
the level of emotion (in particular negative) expressed towaards patient by carers
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EE contains verbal criticism of patient occasionally?
accompained by violence
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hostility toward the patient including?
anger and rejection
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and emotional over-involvement in the life of the patient including?
needless self sacrifice
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high levels of expressed emptions toward patient make them?
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primarily an explanation for what in sz?
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has also been suggested it can trigger onset of sz in who?
someone already vulnerable due to genetic makeup
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- cognitive explanations
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cog exp is one that focuses on?
role of mental processes
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sz is associated with several types of what that could provide exps for sz as a whole?
abnormal info processing
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sz is characterised by?
disruption to normal processing
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already seen what is associated with negative symptoms?
reduced processing in ventral striatum
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while reduced processing where are assoc w/ hallucinations?
temporal and cingulate gyri
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lower than unusual level of info processing suggests what?
cognitionis likely to be impaired
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frith et al identified two kinds of dysfunctional thought processing that could underly symptoms which were?
metarepresentation / central control
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+ metarepresentation
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cognitive ability to do what?
reflect on thoughts and behaviour
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allows us insight into?
intentions and goals
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and allows us to interpret?
actions of others
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dysfunction here wouold disrupt our ability to?
recognise our own actions and thoughts as being carried out by ourselves rather than someone else
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this would explain which two things about sz?
hallucinations of voices / delusions like thought insertion
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+ central ctrl
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cognitive ability to do what?
suppress automatic responses while performing deliberate actions instead
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which two things could result from inability to suppress automatic thoughts?
disorganised speech / thought disorder
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:) support for family dysfunction as a risk factor
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read et al reviewed how many studies of child abuse + sz?
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and concluded what % adult women in-;atnets w/ sz had a history of physica;/sexual abuse in childhood?
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for men the figure was?
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adults with what kind of ainswerth attachment are also more likely?
insecure attachments
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most of this large body of evidence though shares which weakness?
information about childhood gathered after symptom development
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why is this bad?
sz may have distorted patients' recall of childhood experiences
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this creates a serious probem of?
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much smaller number of prospective studies have been carried out with results?
inconsistent results with some prospective evidence
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:( weak evidence for family-based interpretations
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lots of evidence to support broad principle of poor childhood but almost none to support importance of which two theories/
schizophrenogenic mother / double bind
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both these theories are based on what?
clinical observation of patients
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and early evidence involved assessing the personality of mothers of patients for?
crazy making characteristics
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who is quacking?
modern psychiatrists
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another problem with these explanatiosn is that they've historically led to what?
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parents are going to recieve blame for condition as wel las already having?
suffered at seeing descent into sz
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what shift may be one of factors leading to decline of sz mother / double bind theories?
from hospital to community care
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:) strong evidence for dysfunctional info processing
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stirling et al compared patients with sz to non-patient controls on range of cognitive tasks including?
stroop test
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how many sz?
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and ctrls?
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what does the stroop test involve?
pps naming ink colours of words and resisting impulse to read them
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what theory does this line up with?
central control dysfunction
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patients took over twice as long to name ink colours
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links between symptoms and faulty cognition clear but this doesn't tell us
anything about ORIGINS of cognitions or sz
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cognitive theories can explain proximal causes or?
what causes current symptoms
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but not distal causes or?
origins of condition
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:( evidence for biological factors not adequately considered
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could be that both biological and psych factors can separately produce same symptom which raises whatquotestion?
whether both outcomes are rlly sz
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alternatively we can view this in terms of what model?
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- family dysfunction



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psychologists have attempted to link sz to what?


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+ schizophrenogenic mother


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fromm-reichmann proposed this theory based on what approach


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