Schizophrenia keywords

  • Created by: IB122
  • Created on: 06-03-17 11:37
Schizophrenia
A severe mental illness where contact with reality and insight is impaired, an example of psychosis.
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Classification of mental disorder
The process of organising symptoms into categories based on which symptoms cluster together in sufferers.
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Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Atypical symptoms experienced in addition to normal experiences. These include hallucinations and delusions.
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Hallucinations
A positive symptom of schizophrenia where sensory experiences occur with stimuli that has no basis in reality / distorted perception of things that exist.
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Delusions
A positive symptom of schizophrenia that involve beliefs with no basis in reality e.g. the sufferer may believe that they are someone else or are a victim of a conspiracy.
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Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Atypical experiences that represent the loss of a usual experience such as clear thinking or normal levels of motivation.
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Speech poverty
A negative symptom of schizophrenia that involves reduced frequency and quality of speech.
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Avolition
A negative symptom of schizophrenia involving the loss of motivation to carry out tasks and results in reduced activity levels.
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Co-morbidity
The occurrence of two illnesses or conditions together e.g. a person has both schizophrenia and personality disorder. It questions the valdiity of classifying the illnesses separately.
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Symptom overlap
Occurs when two or more conditions share symptoms. Conditions that share many symptoms are questionable in terms of their validity as separate conditions.
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Genetics
Genes are DNA strands that produce instructions for general physical features e.g. eye colour and specific physical features e.g. neurotransmitter levels. These affect psychological features i.e. intelligence/disorders that are often inherited.
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Dopamine
A neurotransmitter that generally has an excitatory effect and is associated with the sensation of pleasure. Unusually high levels are associated with schizophrenia and unusually low levels are associated with Parkinson's.
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Neural correlates
Patterns of structure or activity in the brain that occur in conjuction with an experience and may be implicated in the origins of that experience.
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Family dysfunction
Abnornmal processes within a family such as poor family communication, cold parenting and high levels of expressed emotion. These may be risk factors for both the development and maintenance of schizophrenia.
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Cognitive explanations
Explanations that focus on mental processes such as thinking, language and attention.
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Dysfunctional though processing
A general term meaning information processing that is not functioning normally and produces undesirable consequences.
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Antipsychotics
Drugs used to reduce the intensity of symptoms, in particular positive symptoms of psychotic like conditions such as schizophrenia.
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Typical antipsychotics
The first generation of antipsychotic drugs having been used since 1950s. They work as dopamine antagonists including chlorpromazine.
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Atypical antipsychotics
Drugs for schizophrenia developed after typical antipsychotic drugs. They target a range of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin e.g. Clozapine and Risperidone.
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Cognitive behaviour therapy
A method for treating mental disorders based on both cognitive and behavioural techniques. From the cognitive viewpoint, the therapy aims to challenge negative thoughts.
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Family therapy
A psychological therapy carried out with all or some members of a family with the aim of improving their communication and reducing stress of living as a family.
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Token economies
A form of behaviour therapy, where desirable behaviours are encouraged by the use of selective reinforcement. E.g. patients are given tokens as secondary reinforces which are exchanged for privileges as primary reinforcers.
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The interactionist approach
A broad approach to explaining schizophrenia which acknowledges that a range of factors, including biological and psychological factors, and their involvement in the development of schizophrenia.
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The diathesis-stress model
An interactionist approach to explaining behaviour e.g. schizophrenia is explained as a result of both an underlying vulnerability and a trigger, both necessary. In early versions of the model, vulnerability was genetic but now include trauma.
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Card 2

Front

The process of organising symptoms into categories based on which symptoms cluster together in sufferers.

Back

Classification of mental disorder

Card 3

Front

Atypical symptoms experienced in addition to normal experiences. These include hallucinations and delusions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A positive symptom of schizophrenia where sensory experiences occur with stimuli that has no basis in reality / distorted perception of things that exist.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A positive symptom of schizophrenia that involve beliefs with no basis in reality e.g. the sufferer may believe that they are someone else or are a victim of a conspiracy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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