Schizophrenia Key Terms

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Schizophrenia
Severe mental illness where contact with reality and insight is impaired.
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Positive Symptoms
Additional experiences beyond ordinary existence, e.g. delusions and hallucinations
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Hallucinations
Positive symptom. Sensory experiences of stimuli, no basis in reality or are distorted perceptions of things in reality.
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Delusions
Positive symptom. Beliefs that have no basis in reality, e.g. sufferer is the victim of a conspiracy.
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Negative Symptoms
Loss of usual abilities/experiences such as motivation or clear thinking. E.g. speech poverty and avolition.
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Speech Poverty
Negative symptom. Reduced frequency and quality of speech. Sometimes a delay in response during conversation.
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Disorganised Speech
In DSM-V this is a positive symptom. Speech becomes incoherent or topic changes mid-sentence.
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Avolition/Apathy
Negative symptom. Difficulty beginning or maintaining goal-orientated activity. 3 signs: poor personal hygiene, lack of persistence at work and lack of energy.
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Co-morbidity
2 or more illnesses occur together. 50% of Sz patients also have depression. Challenge for classification/diagnosis of Sz. Bad at telling differences between conditions. May be a single condition.
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Symptom Overlap
Overlap between symptoms of Sz and other conditions. Sz and bipolar both involve delusions and avolition. Questions validity of classification/diagnosis of Sz. Diagnosis dependent on diagnostic manual.
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Reliability
Consistency. Inter-rater reliability = extent that different assessors agree on assessment. 2 psychiatrists diagnosed 100 patients using DSM and ICD - 1 diagnosed 26-DSM and 44-ICD. Other diagnosed 13-DSM and 24-ICD.
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Validity
Extent that we are measuring what we are intending to measure. Criterion validity = do different assessment systems reach same diagnosis for same patient? More likely to be diagnosed with ICD then DSM - over or under diagnosis? Poor validity.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Additional experiences beyond ordinary existence, e.g. delusions and hallucinations

Back

Positive Symptoms

Card 3

Front

Positive symptom. Sensory experiences of stimuli, no basis in reality or are distorted perceptions of things in reality.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Positive symptom. Beliefs that have no basis in reality, e.g. sufferer is the victim of a conspiracy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Loss of usual abilities/experiences such as motivation or clear thinking. E.g. speech poverty and avolition.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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