Schizophrenia Flashcards

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  • Created by: Kim_Hurn
  • Created on: 09-05-18 22:00
What is Schizophrenia?
A mental illness where contact with reality and insight are impaired.
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What are Positive Symptoms?
Symptoms experienced in addition to normal experiences.
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What are the Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia?
Hallucinations and Delusions.
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What are Negative Symptoms?
Experiences that represent the loss of a usual experience.
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What are the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia?
Speech Poverty and Avolition.
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How would you describe Hallucinations?
Sensory experiences of stimuli that have no basis in reality / distorted perceptions.
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How would you describe Delusions?
Beliefs that have no basis in reality.
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How would you describe Speech Poverty?
Reduced frequency and quality of speech.
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How would you describe Avolition?
The loss of motivation to carry out tasks, lowered activity levels.
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What is Hyperdopaminergia?
High levels of dopamine in the sub-cortex.
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What may Hyperdopaminergia be associated with?
Speech Poverty and / or auditory hallucinations.
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What is Hypodopaminergia?
Goldman - Rakic et al identified a role for low levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
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What are Neural Correlates?
A measurement of the structure / functions that correlate experience.
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How are Negative Symptoms associated with Neural Correlates?
Abnormality of the ventral striatum may develop avolition. Juckel measured activity levels and found lower levels of activity than those observed in the control group.
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How are Positive Symptoms associated with Neural Correlates?
Allen scanned brains of patients experiencing auditory hallucinations and compared to control group whilst identifying pre recorded speech as theirs or others. Lower levels in the superior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus were found.
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What is believed of Genetic Basis and Schizophrenia?
That there is a relationship between genetic similarity and shared risk of schizophrenia.
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What are Individual Genes believed to be associated with?
The risk of inheritance as it is polygenic (requires a number of factors to work in combination)
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Is Schizophrenia Aetiologically Heterogenous?
Yes.
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What did Ripke et al do?
He combined previous data from genome wide studies of schizophrenia and compared 37000 compared to 113000 controls.
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What did Ripke et al find?
108 genetic variations were associated with risk, influencing those coding for functioning of a number of neurotransmitters.
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What are the 4 Psychological Explanations?
1) Schizophrenogenic Mother 2) Double Blind Theory 3) Expressed Emotion 4) Cognitive Explanations.
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What is meant by the Schizophrenogenic Mother?
Fromm - Reichmann noted patients spoke of a type of parent she named the 'schizophrenogenic mother', who was cold, rejecting and controlled, tending to create family climate (tension and secrecy), leading to paranoid delusions.
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What is the Double Blind Theory?
Bateson emphasised the role of communication style within a family.
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What happens in the Double Blind Theory?
A child feels trapped and fears they're doing wrong, receiving mixed messages and unable to comment on unfairness / seek clarification.
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What does the Double Blind Theory result in?
When the child gets it wrong they are punished through withdrawal of love, leaving them with the understanding the world is confusing and dangerous, reflected in disorganised speech and paranoid delusions.
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What does Expressed Emotion contain?
The verbal criticism of the patient, occupied by violence. Hostility towards the patient, anger and rejection. Emotional over involvement in the life of the patient, needless self sacrifice.
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What is Expressed Emotion?
The level of emotion in particular negative emotions, expressed towards a patient by their carers.
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What has high levels of EE in carers towards patients suggested?
It is an explanation for relapse in patients and can be a source of stress that may trigger the onset of schizophrenia in a person already vulnerable.
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What does the Cognitive Explanation focus on?
The role of mental processes.
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What is Schizophrenia associated with in regards to the Cognitive Explanation?
Several types of abnormal information processing.
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What are the two types of dysfunctional thoughts as identified by Frith?
Metarepresentation and Central Control.
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What is Metarepresentation?
The cognitive ability to reflect on thoughts / behaviour, allowing insight into goals / intentions. Dysfunction disrupts our ability to recognise these as being carried out ourselves.
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What is Central Control?
The cognitive ability to suppress automatic responses while we perform deliberate actions instead. Disorganised speech and thought disorder results in inability to suppress these automatic thoughts.
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What are the two types of Antipsychotics?
Typical and Atypical.
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What are Typical Antipsychotics?
Work as dopamine antagonists and include chlorpromazine. Block dopamine receptors in the synapses of the brain, reducing action build up and its proaction is reduced, normalising neurotransmitters.
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What is Chlorpromazine?
Calms patients and an effective seductive, believed to be related to its effect on histamine receptors.
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What are Atypical Antipsychotics?
Target a range of neurotransmitters, and were developed after.
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What is Clozapine?
Binds to dopamine receptors and acts as serotonin and glutamine receptors, improving mood and reducing depression / anxiety.
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What is Risperidone?
Binds to dopamine and serotonin receptors but binds stronger than clozapine and is effective in smaller doses, so fewer side effects.
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What are the different Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia?
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Token Economy and Family Therapy.
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What is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy?
Where patients are helped to make sense of delusions / hallucinations and their impact on feeling / behaviour. Understanding or challenging them to learn their beliefs are not based on reality.
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What is Token Economies?
A reward system that is used to manage behaviour and modify it through improving the patients quality of life.
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What is given out during Token Economies?
Tokens are given immediately after desirable behaviour, reinforcing them rewards become available for tokens, based on operant conditioning as they learn tokens can be used to obtain awards.
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What is Family Therapy?
A way of improving quality of communication and interaction, reducing stress that may contribute to a patients relapse. (Pharaoh et al)
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What is the Interactionist Approach for Schizophrenia?
Acknowledges that a range of factors are involved in the development of schizophrenia.
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What is Meehl's Model?
Diathesis was genetic, the result of a single 'schizogene' leads to development of a biologically based schizotypic personality, causing sensitivity to stress.
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What is the Modern Understanding?
Many genes appear to increase genetic vulnerability, no single schizogene becomes diathesis rather than the stressor.
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What did Read et al propose?
A neurodevelopment model where early trauma alters the development of the brain, stress is seen as psychological in nature and risks triggering schizophrenia.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are Positive Symptoms?

Back

Symptoms experienced in addition to normal experiences.

Card 3

Front

What are the Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are Negative Symptoms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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