Schizophrenia - psychological explanations

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Psychological explanations
Psychodynamic (Freud), behavioral (learning theory), cognitive
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Psychodynamic explanation
Produced by Freud. Focuses on childhood experiences, states that Sz may reflect regression and a poorly developed ego, also paranoia may be a consequence of projection
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Regression (Psychodynamic)
The ego may be overwhelmed by the demands from the Id or by feelings of guilt from the super ego, so the individual regresses to the safety and security of the oral stage.
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Poorly developed ego (Psychodynamic)
As the ego has not properly developed yet in the first stage, the child cannot distinguish between itself, its fantasies and the real external world.
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Fromm-Reichmann (psychodynamic evaluation)
Fromm-Reichmann looked at 'Schizophrenogenic mothers'. This is a type of parent that is likely to bring on schizophrenia in a child from the way they behave. They might say one thing but mean another.
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2nd Fromm-Reichmann (psychodynamic evaluation)
They interviewed patients with Sz about what their childhoods were like. Many patients had cold, manipulative mothers who were domineering and unable to show affection.
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Brown et al (psychodynamic evaluation)
They found that Sz/s who return to their families with high levels of expressed emotion are almost 6 times as likely to suffer a relapse than those who return to families with low levels of expressed emotion.
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Other psychodynamic evaluation points
Retrospective data as it is from people's childhood, leads to parents being blamed for their children's problems, also the theory is unscientific/too simplistic/reductionist (behaviorists would argue) - the psyche is not observable,
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Behavioral explanation
Sz is caused by direct reinforcement/observational learning - social learning theory. Abnormal behavior is learnt in the same way as normal behavior e.g. nurses giving some cases more time in hospitals may cause bizarre behavior to be more likely
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Behavioral evaluation points
Behaviors can't explain the cognitive aspects of Sz (e.g. hallucintions), it is not clear how symptoms are acquired if not observed in others, also the learning approach is deterministic (no scope for free will) - doesn't account for biological
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Cognitive explanations
Distorted processes may be a cause of Sz, random info appears relevant, cannot distinguish between internal thoughts and external reality, delusions of control due the inability to be aware of our own views vs others views, delusions of control
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Other cognitive explanations
Delusions of reference (Sz's cannot interpret people's emotions/signals therefore cannot understand them), also hallucinations and paranoia can be caused
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Cognitive explanation - Hemsely
Sz's fail to activate schemas, the relationship between stored schemas and incoming information breaks down, have the inability to attend selectively meaning sensory overload occurs
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Evaluation of cognitive explanations
Good points: may help to understand the origin of particular symptoms, brain mechanisms have been mentioned. Bad points - more descriptive than explanatory, weak evidence, ignores environmental factors
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Produced by Freud. Focuses on childhood experiences, states that Sz may reflect regression and a poorly developed ego, also paranoia may be a consequence of projection

Back

Psychodynamic explanation

Card 3

Front

The ego may be overwhelmed by the demands from the Id or by feelings of guilt from the super ego, so the individual regresses to the safety and security of the oral stage.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

As the ego has not properly developed yet in the first stage, the child cannot distinguish between itself, its fantasies and the real external world.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Fromm-Reichmann looked at 'Schizophrenogenic mothers'. This is a type of parent that is likely to bring on schizophrenia in a child from the way they behave. They might say one thing but mean another.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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