Sandy/muddy shores and estuarine definitions

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Epifauna
animals living on the surface of the seabed, or attached to submerged objects or organisms
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Infauna
animals living in the sediments of the ocean floor (burrowing)
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Porosity
volume of pore space between particles
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Percolation
the process of a liquid slowly passing through a filter
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Permeability
rate of percolation of water through the sediment
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Dilatant sand
when pressure is applied, sand becomes dry and tightly packed as water is driven out of the interstices (difficult to burrow in)
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Thixotropic sand
Quick sand - sands with high clay content (wetter and more easily penetrated)
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Mud
does not drain and is saturated with water (easy to burrow in)
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Redox discontinuity layer
the transition layer between oxygen rich and oxygen poor layers of sea-floor sediment
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Siphon
long extension burrowing bivalves may use to access oxygen rich layers
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ordovician
second period of paleozoic layer
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stromatolites
the oldest fossils in the world - from muddy shores
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competitive displacement
different organisms with identical ecological niches, seen in the vertical distribution of infaunal species
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bioturbation
the disturbance of sedimentary deposits by living organisms
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the mesozoic marine revolution (MMR)
the rapid adaptation to shell-crushing and boring predation in benthic organisms throughout the mesozoic era
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biostabiliser
fauna that increases cohesiveness, smoothness, and forms a protective layer of sedimenr
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bioturbator
fauna that oxygenates, reduces the strength, and regrades the structure of sediment
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extracellular polymetric substances (EPS)
mucous secreted by micro algae, increasing cohesiveness and reducing roughness of sediment
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conveyor-belt deposit feeders
ingest sediment from a range of depths and deposit waste on the seafloor surface
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estuary
an ectended interface between a marine and flowing freshwater (lotic) system
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microtidal
tidal variation of less than 2m
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Mesotidal
tidal variation of 2-4m (e.g. southampton)
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Macrotidal
tidal variation of 4-6m
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Hypertidal
tidal variation of over 6m
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semi-diurnal
2 high and 2 low tides each day
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diurnal
1 high and 1 low tide each day
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tidal resonance
combination of 2 amplitudes to form a tidal peak
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osmotic pressure
the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution (salt or freshwater) to prevent the inward flow (osmosis) of its pure solvent (salt) across a semipermeable membrane (e.g. animal cell)
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osmoconformer
the osmotic pressure within an animal's cells are equal to the surrounding water
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osmoregulator
active regulation of osmotic pressure within cells
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euryhaline
tolerates large salinity range (many estuarine species)
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stenohaline
tolerates only a narrow salinity range
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effluent
liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea
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eutrophication
excessive richness of nutrients in a body of water, causing a dense growth of plant life.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Infauna

Back

animals living in the sediments of the ocean floor (burrowing)

Card 3

Front

Porosity

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Percolation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Permeability

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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