Saltburn to Flamborough Head, a high-energy coastal environment, Case study

How long is the coastline?
60km
1 of 30
How high are the adjacent North York Moors?
400m above sea level
2 of 30
What do they comprise of?
mainly sandstones, shales and limestones formed during the Jurassic period
3 of 30
What is the geology of Flamborough Head?
A large chalk headland, topped with till, a deposit left behind by glaciers.
4 of 30
What direction do the waves come from?
north and northwest
5 of 30
What is the fetch?
over 1500km
6 of 30
How much erosion per year for areas of weak shale and clay?
0.8m
7 of 30
How much erosion per year for more resistant sandstones and limestones?
less than 0.1m
8 of 30
What were the wave heights as Whitby Bay during 2010-11?
often exceeding 4m, even during summer months
9 of 30
Direction of longshore drift?
North to South
10 of 30
Give an example of a bay, where sediment is interrupted by headlands
Filey bay
11 of 30
Which sediment cell?
sub-cell 1d of major sediment cell 1, extending from St Abbs in Southern Scotland to Flamborough
12 of 30
Where has the sediment come from?
From the nearshore area, driven onshore as sea levels rose at the end of the last glacial period. Also from cliff erosion.
13 of 30
Name of the large river?
The Esk - entering the North Sea at Whitby. Limited sediment supply due to the construction of weirs and reinforced banks along its course
14 of 30
What was the net increase in sediment between 2008 and 2011 at Saltburn?
9245m3
15 of 30
Why is this?
Due to winter storms
16 of 30
What direction are the rocks in?
Horizontally bedded, causing cliff profiles to have a vertical face
17 of 30
What are most cliffs overlain by?
weak glacial till, which has a much lower angle
18 of 30
What are the cliffs at Flamborough made out of?
Chalk, which is very strong with tightly bonded mineral particles
19 of 30
How high are the cliffs?
20-30m, with the till lowered by mass movement processes to an angle of about 40 degrees
20 of 30
What are the cliffs like further north between Robin Hood's Bay and Saltburn
Much higher, but often with a stepped profile, reflecting the more varied geology
21 of 30
What is a shore platform?
High-energy waves cause erosion to retreat the coastline, leaving behind rocky shore platforms
22 of 30
An example of a shore platform?
Robin Hood's Bay
23 of 30
Maximum width?
500m, but extends much further into the offshore zone
24 of 30
Example of a headland and a bay
Ness point (north), Ravenscar (south) - sandstone, with Robin Hood's bay in between - shale
25 of 30
How do landforms form?
As a result of wave refraction, wave energy is concentrated on headlands. Weaknesses, such as joints or faults are exploited by erosion from waves, enlarging them to form caves and arches.
26 of 30
Where can this be seen?
Selwick's Bay at Flamborough Head - joint in the chalk enlarged
27 of 30
Where is an example of a stack?
Green Stacks Pinnacle
28 of 30
Explain the process of a geo, blowhole and cave
Geo - joint enlarged into the cliff. Cave - rock undercut. Blowhole - erosion reaches cave roof.
29 of 30
Example of a beach
Scarborough and Filey Bay
30 of 30

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How high are the adjacent North York Moors?

Back

400m above sea level

Card 3

Front

What do they comprise of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the geology of Flamborough Head?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What direction do the waves come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Case studies resources »