Russia: Unit 3.

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What were the 4 main reasons Lenin Introduced the New Economic Policy?
Growin opposition in the countryside, Growing opposition in the cities, The kronstadt mutiny, The effects fo War Communism.
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What were the effects of war communism for the peasants?
They were relucant to produce for the state and grew less and less. This led to a major famine in 1921 and between 5 and 7 million Russians starved to death.
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Why did opposition grow in the countryside?
Requisitioning resulted in hundreds of peasant uprisings with the bigggest being in the Tambov region in 1921-22 which took a year to supress.
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Why did opposition grow in the cities?
Industrial workers were forced to work long hours and forbidden to strike this meant that many fled to the countryside. In 1921 the bread ration was cut by a third causing strikes and demonstrations.
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Explain the Kronstadt Mutiny.
In march 1921 there was a rebellion of sailors and dockyard workers at the Kronstadt naval base. They demanded better conditions and an end to WC. Trotsky ordered 60,000 troops to restore order.
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When did Lenin introduce the New Economic Policy?
March 1921.
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Who were the Nepmen?
Private Traders who bought goods and sold them on for a profit.
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Who were the Kulaks?
Better-off peasantry who benefitted from the NEP.
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List some terms of the NEP.
Factories of less than 20 workers returned to their owners, Foreign trade encouraged, Requisitioning stopped, Tax reduced for productive peasants, Power stations built, Nepmen, Coal steel and transport controlled by the state.
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List some achievements of the NEP:
By 1923: food production had increased, Factory output rose by 200%, Shops and Cafes reopened, Industry recovered.
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List some ways in which the NEP failed:
Some said that it encouraged capitalism, Nepmen and Kulaks were criticised as being greedy capitalists, crime increased in cities, SCISSORS CRISIS.
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Explain the ''Scissors Crisis''.
A surplus of food resulted in a fall in agricultural prices while the price of industrial goods rose as they were in short supply.
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What did the central government demand complete control of by 1924?
Finance, Industry, Transport, Foreign trade. This is known as Centralisation and Nationalisation..
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What changes happened for women under communist rule?
Women were made equal to men and there was a women's department in the Sovnarkom. Divorce and abortions were made easier. Women were granted paid maternity leave. As soldiers returned some women were forced from skiled to unskilled work.
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How did communist rule change education?
Lenin reorganised education to spread communist ideology. Every child was to recieve 9 years of free education. The pioneers for children under 15 and the Komsomol for those over 15.
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How was religion affected by communist rule?
The decree for the separation of the church and state allowed freedom of worship but also destroyed the power and wealth of the church. Church property was siezed. Sunday schools and monasteries were closed down.
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What changes were made to culture in the communist USSR?
The Commissariat of Public Enlightenment was set up and arts became modernised. Paintings had to show happy workers contributing to a communist vicotry and Lenin as a hero.
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When was pre-publication censorship introduced on all books, articles, poems and writings?
1922.
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What was Agitpop and what did it do?
The Department for Agitation and Propaganda. Its function was to spread communist ideology. Agitpop trains, and boats toured the country.
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When did Lenin die?
January 1924.
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Why didn't Trotsky win the power struggle?
Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev all teamed up to discredit Trotsky and block Lenin's wife publishing Lenin's testament.
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Card 2

Front

What were the effects of war communism for the peasants?

Back

They were relucant to produce for the state and grew less and less. This led to a major famine in 1921 and between 5 and 7 million Russians starved to death.

Card 3

Front

Why did opposition grow in the countryside?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did opposition grow in the cities?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the Kronstadt Mutiny.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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