Russia Unit 2

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What were the Principal causes for the Cilvl war in Russia?
Economic hardship across Russia and Oppisition to the Bolsheviks
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What was the Economic hardship like across Russia?
result of war there was widespread hunger- made worse by loss of fertlie land because of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- increasing violence in countryside as peasents sent officals who were sent to requsition food
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Why and Who oppsed the Bolsheviks?
Upset many people who did not want to see them remain in power- known as whites
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Why were they called whites?
Traditional colour of the Tsar- not all supported Tsar
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Who did they whites inculde?
Tsarists, Social revolutionaries, middle class, landlords, factory owners, army officers, christians, minorty groups, Czech legion and Foregein powers
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Why did the Allies join the side of the Whites?
Wjites promise dto restart war with Germany after they had beaten Reds
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What the Foregein powers called and what did they do?
Interventionists- send troops and arms
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Who were the Czech legion?
Had fought for Russia in WW1 agaisit austria were hoping that Czechoslovakia would gain independence when Germany was defeated
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What happened to make them rebel?
Bolshviks promised to send Czechs to France to keep fighting however became suspious that they would be handed over when told to hand over weapons- took control of train and headed to Moscow to defeat Reds
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What did this rebelion start?
The civil war summer 1918
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What did Admiral Kolchak do?
attack from siberia in spring of 1919. got as far as Kazan but was defeated
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Where did the Allied forces attack from?
From North, capturing Murmansk and Archangel
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What did General Yudenich do?
Attacked Petrograd form Baltic States in summer of 1919- by end of year defeated
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What put Villages on the brink of starvation?
Conscription and food requsitioning
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What did the peasents do?
Organise themselves into armies known as Greens.
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What did the Greens do?
fought againsit bothe sides to stop conscription and requsitiong- failed to form a united group
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What did poland do and when?
suprise attack in 1920
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Why did poland attack?
Take advantage of war to try and obtain the Ukraine area.
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Did the Reds lose?
Managed to drive them back to Warsaw but then themselves were defeated and forced back
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What did the countries then do?
Mkae peace and signed the Treaty of Riga in 1921- marked end of Civil war
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What happened to the Tsar during the War?
kept prisoner by Reds in Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains.
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What happened in July 1918?
Kolchaks white army were approaching and The Reds were worried the Tsar would fall into their hands
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When and how were the family killed?
took down into cellar at the Impatiev house and shot (bodies burnred in nearby mine)- 16th-17th july 1918
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Why were the Reds able to win?
1. Role of Trotsky 2. Geographivcal advantage 3. Red Terror 4. war communisum 5 weakness of Whites
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What was Trotsy and what did he do?
Commissar for war and created the Red army
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Who was in the Red army?
loyal Bolsheviks, conscripts (men aged 18-40) and officers of the Tsars army to led it
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Many conscripts and officers could not be trusted as they were not Bolsheviks. How did he ensure loyalty?
1. Attached political officers (loyal Bolsheviks) to ecah unit 2. Millitant Methods (captial punishment and kidnapped officers familes 3. Trotsky was a Brillant leader
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How was Trotsky a Brilliant leader?
won respect of his troops as he visited front line and made speeches which raised morale adn encourged and ensured soliders they would be kept well supplied- Trotskys Train
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How big was the Red army by the end of the war?
3m- supeiror to whites
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What part of Russia did the Bolsheviks control?
large central area of western Russia which contained Moscow and Petrograd
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Why was this an advantage?
contained most industry and good railway system which emeant they had access to armerments and could move troops quickly from one front to another- could defeat one white army after another
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Who enforced Red Terror and what did they do?
The Cheka- arrest, torture and exucute thos suspected of working agaist reds
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When did Red Terror increase?
after an assination attempt on lenin in 1918- over 800 'enmies of the state' were excuted
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Why did Lenin introduce War Communisum?
To ensure the Red army were kept well supplied with weapons and food so they could win the war
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Why did War communisum succeed?
1. Decree of nationism 2. The Vesenka 3. food requsiting
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What was the Decree of nationism?
Bolshevik goverment took over factories with 10 workers - death pently for anyone that went os strike
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What was the Vesenka?
A concil which decied what each industry should produce- Reds ensured they were producing the materials needed for war
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What was happening the the Peasents at first and what did they do?
forced to sell crops to goverment for an unfair price- stopped producing surplus crops
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What was food requsitioning?
Sizeing crops without payment- Cheka sent to take food
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What did this achive?
Army kept well fed but major food shortages in the cities
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What were the whites main weaknesses?
not a single army who attacked Reds separatley so could be fought off one by one- fighting for differant things
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Why did they whites lose support?
Appered unpatriotic as they were having help form foreginers
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Why did the peasents not support the whites?
did not like Reds but feared they would lose their land.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the Economic hardship like across Russia?

Back

result of war there was widespread hunger- made worse by loss of fertlie land because of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- increasing violence in countryside as peasents sent officals who were sent to requsition food

Card 3

Front

Why and Who oppsed the Bolsheviks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why were they called whites?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who did they whites inculde?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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