Russia Unit 2

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What were the principal causes of the Civil War?
1. Economic hardship across Russia 2. Oppisition from the Bolsheviks
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How was the widespread hunger caused by the war made worse?
Loss of fertile land to Germany(TOBL) - Increasing violence in the countryside as peasents attacked officals sent to collect food.
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Why did the whites not want the bolsheviks in power?
Upset many differant groups- hated them for differant reasons
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Why was the Reds oppisition called the whites?
Traditional colour of the Tsar even though not all whites supported the Tsar.
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Why were the social revolutionists againsit the Bolsheviks?
They won the oct elections to the contituent assembly so should be ruling russia however Lenin ignored this and closed the consituent assembly.
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What other groups were inculded in the whites?
Middle class, landlords, factory owner, amry officers, christians, russian minorites.
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Why did forgein countries like Britian, france and the USA join the whites?
Angry after Bolsheviks had withdrawn from the war- whites promised to restart it
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What were the forgein countries called?
The interventionists
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Who were the Czech Legion?
They fought for Russiain the first world war againsit austria in the hope that Czechoslovakia would gain independce.
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What happened to the Czech Legion after the Bolsheviks ended the war?
Bolsheviks promised to send them to france to keep fighting however became supisocous that they would be handed over to the germans when the train was stopped & they were ordered to hand over their weapons.
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When did the fighting start for the civil war and why?
summer 1918- the Czech Legion rebelled againsit the Reds.
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Why were the Whites weak at attacking the Reds?
Armies couldn't attack at the same time- not organised- couldnt move troops quickly enough- not united- Reds had a geographical advantage.
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How did the war make life worse for the peasents?
Conscription was brought in and food requisitioning put villages on the brink of starvation.
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What did this result in?
The peasents organising themselvles in armies known as the Greens.
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What did these Greens do?
Fought againsit the Reds and whites to try ans stop consription and requisitioning- but failed to form a united group.
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Why did the forgein powers withdraw their support for the Whites?
White armies suffered deafeats.
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What happened to the Reds in 1920?
Poland lanuched a suprise attack.
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Why did Poland attack?
The Poles were trying to take advantage of the war by trying to obtain the Ukraine area.
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Was the Polish attack successful?
Reds managed to drive them back to Warsaw but were the defeated and driven back themselves.
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What then happened between the two countries?
they then made peace by sighning the Treaty of Riga in 1921.
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What is the Treaty of Riga seen as?
The end of the Civil war- 1921
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What happened to the Tsar during the war years?
Kept prisoner by the Red army at Ekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains.
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What happened in July 1918?
Kolchaks white army was approaching- Reds worried the Tsar would fall into their hands.
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What was the date the Tsar and his family were killed?
16-17th of july
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Where were they killed?
Cellar of Ipatiev House
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How were they killed?
Shot them all- their bodies were burned in a nearby mine.
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What was Trotskys role in the war?
Commissar for war and he created and organised the Red army.
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Who was in the Red army?
loyal Bolsheviks and conscripts- Many of the officers could not be trusted as they were not Bolsheviks
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How did Trotsky ensure the officers were loyal?
Attached a Political officer to each unit- Kidnapped families- Captial punishment introduced- Trotsky himself was a brilliant leader so won the respect of the troops
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How was Trotsky a good leader?
Visited thr front line, rasing morale with speeches, encourging them and ensuring that they would be kept well supplied.
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How many people were in the Red Army by the end of the Civil war?
3 million- far supieror to the whites.
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Which parts of Russia did the Reds control?
Large central area of western Russianwhich contained Moscow and Petrograd.
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What benifits did this bring?
Most of the industry was here and there was also good railway systems.
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How did this help the Red army?
Menat they had access to armaments- Railways allowed them to move troops quickly(could defeat one white army after another)
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What was the Cheka?
Secret police
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What did the the Cheka do?
In areas controlled by the Bolsheviks they would arrest, torture and exucute those suspected of working againsit the reds.
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When did Red terror start?
after an assination atempt on lenin.
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How many people were killed in petrograd alone?
over 800
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Why did Lenin introduce War Communism?
To ensure that the Red army was supplied with weapons and food so it could win.
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What was the Decree of Nationism?
Bolshevik goverment took over factories with 10 or more workers - death penalty for anyone who went on strike.
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What was the Vesenkha?
It decided what each industry should produce- it ensured that they were producing the materials needed for war.
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What did the peasent s have to do with their crops at first?
Sell to the goverment (no private sales allowed)- angry because the goverment was not giving them a fair price so stopped producing surplus food this only increased the food shortages in the cities.
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What was Food Requisitioning?
The Cheka were sent to sieze without payment food from peasents
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What effect did Food Requisitioning have?
Kept Red army well fed but caused starvation all over Russia, millions died!
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What was the Whites main weakness?
not organised into single army so reds could fight them off seperately.
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Why did thw Whites lose support?
seemed to be unpatriotic as they were being helped by interventionists.
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Why didn't peasents support the whites?
Although they didn't like the reds they feared they would lose their land if the whites won.
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Card 2

Front

How was the widespread hunger caused by the war made worse?

Back

Loss of fertile land to Germany(TOBL) - Increasing violence in the countryside as peasents attacked officals sent to collect food.

Card 3

Front

Why did the whites not want the bolsheviks in power?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was the Reds oppisition called the whites?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why were the social revolutionists againsit the Bolsheviks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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