Russia: Unit 2.

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Explain the growing economic and social hardship in 1918 after the war.
Bolsheviks failed to deal with starvation. Railway system collapsed so transportation of food was difficult. The Ukraine supplied most of Russia's wheat and this was taken by Brest-Litovsk. March 1918 - bread ration so low that violence broke out.
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What happened in May 1918?
The Socialist Revolutionaries attempted a failed takeover of power. They sponsored terrorist activities and during July and August 1918 there were two unsuccessful assassination attempts against Lenin.
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Who were the Czech Legion and why did they oppose the Bolsheviks?
42,000 Czech soldiers who had fought on the Russian side in the war. Clashed with Bolshevik forces on the Trans-Siberian railway to Vladivostok. The soldiers rebelled and this encouraged other groups to come out starting the civil war.
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Who made up the Whites?
Tsarists, Nationalists, Nobles, Landowners, and wealthy industrialists who all wanted the Tsar back. Also Kerenskyists (SRs and cadets) who wanted the return of the Constituent Assmbly.
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Who were the Greens? What did they want?
Groups who refused to be conscripted into the official white army. They were peasants and nationalist minorites (such as the Ukrainian and Georgian armies) who desired independence.
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Who were the foreign powers involved in the civil war? What did they want?
Britain, France, USA and Japan. They feared the spread of communism. They were also angry that Lenin had withrawn Russia from the war and that the Bolsheviks cancelled repaying their loans.
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What happened in the North?
General Miller, aided by British forces, attempted to push south from Archangel but were unsuccessful. Evacuated in 1920.
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What happened in the West?
General Yudenich's army of 15,000 reached the outskirts of Petrograd in October 1919. The Estonian troops made peace and abandoned and by mid 1920 Yudenich's army dissolved.
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What happened in the South?
General Denikn's army of 150,000 ,en failed to capture Moscow. Trotsky's Red forces drove them back and by the end of 1920 the army had withdrawn from the Crimean Peninsula.
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What did Britain do in the civil war?
Sent the North Russian Expeditionary force to occupy Archangel and Murmansk. British warships were sent to the baltic and the black sea.
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What did France do in the civil war?
Established a naval base in the black sea port of Odessa and sent troops to the Ukraine. However they withdrew all forces by April 1919.
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What did Japan do in the Civil War?
Japan wanted territorial gain and sent forces to Siberia. Japan held the port near Vladivostok until November 1922.
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What did the USA do in the civil war?
The US sent troops to Siberia to try and stop the Japanese expansion. Also sent troops to reinforce British and French forces.
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What happened in the East?
Admiral Kolchack's army of 140,000 men attacked Reds. In 1920 Kolchack was shot . After the Japanese withdrawal the armies here also withdrew.
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Explain War Communism.
State control of industry and agriculture.
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Why were the Red army so successful?
Trotsky. 5 Million men by 1920. Conscription. Good food supply because of war communism. Had control of central Russia and the Railways meaning they could move troops quickly. Talent was promoted. Harsh discipline.
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What happened to the Tsar and his famil after the February revolution?
They were held under house arrest at Tsarskoye Selo. They then moved to Siberia. Lenin ordered their execution. They were shot at 2am on the 17th July 1918. Their bodies were burried in a forest undiscovered until 1991.
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List the strengths of the Reds.
Leadership of Lenin and Trotsky. Cheka. War Communism. Propaganda&Morale. Control of central area and Rail links. Support from the Peasantry - Decree on land.
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List the Weaknesses of the Whites.
Lack of unity. Poor leadership. Weak support from foreign powers. Geographical spread. Low Morale.
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What was Red Terror?
A period of Cheka repression under the Bolsheviks.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened in May 1918?

Back

The Socialist Revolutionaries attempted a failed takeover of power. They sponsored terrorist activities and during July and August 1918 there were two unsuccessful assassination attempts against Lenin.

Card 3

Front

Who were the Czech Legion and why did they oppose the Bolsheviks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who made up the Whites?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who were the Greens? What did they want?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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