Russia: Unit 1.

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Who were the Okhrana?
The Tsar's secret police.
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Explain the term autocracy.
One ruler has complete power.
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What were the three classes in 1914 Russia?
Aristocracy (Landowners), Middle class (Bankers and merchants), Working class (peasants and industrial workers).
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What was 'Bloody Sunday' & when was it?
January 1905 - peacful proters were fired upon by the Tsar's soldiers outside the winter palace in St Petersburg.
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What was the October manifesto?
A manifesto issued by Tsar Nicholas in 1905 promising constitutional reform.
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What were the Dumas?
A representative assembly that the Tsar consulted but which had little power.
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List the 6 main reasons for the growth of opposition to the Tsar?
Character, Rasputin's influence, 1905 Revolution, Failure of Dumas, Industrial unrest, Political opposition.
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When was the battle of Tannenberg? What happened?
26th - 29th August 1914. Russian army overwhelmed by German forces. 70,000 soldiers killed/wounded.
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When was the battle of Masurian Lakes? What happened?
5th - 9th September 1914. German army defeated the Russian forces. 100,000 Russians killed or wounded.
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What significant advancement happened in May 1915?
Austro German forces pushed the Russians back and by the end of 1915 Germany and Austria-Hungary 13% of the Russian population (16 million people).
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What happened in August 1915?
Tsar Nicholas moved to the front line to take personal control of the Russian forces.
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What was the Brusilov Offensive? When did it happen?
A Russian counter-attack which regained land lost in 1915 - Happened in June 1916.
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Why did the Russians suffer so many defeats?
Generals, Poor leadership from Tsar, Weak infrastructure, Lack of supplies & equipment.
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Describe some effects of the war on Russia.
Low morale, weak economy, social hardship, Tsarina in power while Tsar at front line was unpopular, striking and starvation.
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What happened in the 23rd February 1917?
International women's day. Large numbers of women joined 100,000 strikers on the streets of Petrograd to protest about the queues for food.
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What did the Tsar do on the 26th February?
Instructed the army to restore order. Shots were fired on the protestors.
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What did the soldiers do on the 27th February?
Mutinied! This was a turning point as the army had always been loyal to the Tsar.
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What was Order Number One?
An order that took power from the army officers and transferred it to the elected representatives.
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When and Where did the Tsar abdicate?
2nd March 1917 in a railway carriage at Pskov.
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When did the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet begin controlling Russia?
3rd March 1917.
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Explain the term Dual Power.
The attmept at sharing power between the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet between February and October 1917.
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What reforms did the Provisional Government introduce?
Relase of political prisoners, Freedom of speech and religion, the 8 hour working day, abolition of the Okhrana, the promise of an elected parliament.
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What were the two main reasons the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet fell out?
The Provisional Governments wish to continue with the war and not wanting the peasants to own their land.
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When did Lenin return to Russia and why was this a turning point?
3rd April 1917. Lenin issued the April thesis and called for an end to the war. ''Peace, Bread and Land'' ''All power to the Bolsheviks''.
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What were the July Days?
Deserting soldiers fled back to Russia and joined with the Kronstadt sailors to demand an end to the Provisional Government. A 3 day riot occured in Petrograd. Lenin fled - Kerensky becomes Prime Minister.
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What was the Kornilov Revolt?
In Spetember 1917 General Kornilov (commander-on-chief of army) marched soldiers to Petrograd.
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How many members did the Bolshevik party have by October 1917?
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What happened during the night of 24-25 October 1917?
Red guards took control of key points in Petrograd such as railway stations. The Aurora pointed its guns at the Winter Palace. Government members arrested and Provisional Government collapsed.
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What did Lenin announce on the 26th October 1917?
The all-new Bolshevik government - The Council of People's Commissars.
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List the four main reasons for the success of the Bolsheviks in October 1917.
Weakness of the PG, Leadership of Lenin, Role of Trotsky, and a lack of alternatives (other political parties).
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What was the Constituent Assembly?
A parliament elected in November 1917. It met only once in January 1918 because Lenin sent in troops to dissolve it eliminating Bolshevik Opposition.
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Who were the Cheka?
The Bolshevik secret police set up by Felix Dzerzhinsky. By 1921 it had 30,000 officers who sought out and removed Bolshevik opponents.
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what was the Sovnarkom?
The Council of People's Commissars of the government of Russia.
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What did Trotsky do in December 1917?
Held peace talks with the Germans at Brest-Litovsk.
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List some terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Russia: lost 1 million sqkm of land, had to pay 3 billion roubles of reparations and lost 74% of its iron ore and coal reserves.
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Card 2


Explain the term autocracy.


One ruler has complete power.

Card 3


What were the three classes in 1914 Russia?


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Card 4


What was 'Bloody Sunday' & when was it?


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Card 5


What was the October manifesto?


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