Russia: Tsarism to Communism

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  • Created by: mgcd1998
  • Created on: 05-01-14 13:38
What were the long term causes of the revolution?
1905: Bloody Sunday. Duma. Alexei's haemophilia. Harsh repressive rule. Backward industries and medieval farming methods. 80% peasants. Poor transport and communications. A vast country hard to control.
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What were the short term causes of the revolution?
The war: midwife of revolution. Tsar as commander in chief of army in 1916: blamed for lost battles. Left Tsarina and Rasputin in charge: government fell apart. Hiring and firing of ministers. Bread riots. Food rotted at stations.
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Why did the Provisional Government fail? (1)
The Provisional Government did nothing to stop the war. In fact, as desertions increased, it set up death squads to hunt down and execute deserters. Unable to end the shortages of food and fuel in Petrograd.
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Why did the Provisional Government fail? (2)
peasants started taking over the land of the nobles, many of whom had run away. The Provisional Government sent soldiers to take the land back by force.The Provisional Government did little to deal with its opponents. Let Lenin preach in streets.
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How did the Bolsheviks consolidate/strengthen their power?
Closed down the Constituent Assembly at gunpoint. Created Cheka. Became a one party state. Strengthened the Red Army under Trotsky. Fought a civil war.
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What were the White's weaknesses?
Divided amongst contrasting ideology. No one leadership. Geographically spread out. Both sides hated by peasants, but white slightly more. Brutality. Foreign armies tired and lost motivation. Soon left.
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What were the strenghts of the Reds?
United leadership under one ideology. Central Red Russia: controlled a small but powerful industrial area. Centre of government. Gave land to peasants. Powerful Red Army. Trotsky. Army commissars. Tsarist generals. Death penalty.
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What was war communism?
Economic policy during the civil war. Seizing of grain. No money. Bartering. No private ownership. Nationalisation of factories and banks. Famine. Cannibalism. Black market. Kronstadt sailors uprising. Lenin realises he made a mistake.
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What was the NEP?
New economic policy. Small factories private. Money allowed. Trading allowed. Larger industries still nationalised.
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Why was the NEP brought in?
Famine. Kronstadt sailors had been Bolshevik supporters. Lenin decided to take more time rather than force communism onto the peasants.
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How did the Bolsheviks change Russia?
The Peace Decree declared war with Germany was over. The Land Decree declared that land belonged to the peasants who farmed it. Lands and wealth of the Russian Orthodox Church were confiscated.
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What did Russia have to pay in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
25% of its population, 25% of its iron and wheat and 300,000 gold roubles.
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What were the effects of war communism?
Major famine. 5 million died. Peasants refused to hand over food or simply destroyed it instead. Kronstadt sailor rebellion was the final straw.
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What effect did the Civil War have on Russia?
Massive famine. Fall in the food production. Peasants forced to hand over food. Peasants destroyed crops and animals. Power of the cheka increased dramatically. 50,000 killed, usually without a trial.
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What was the cult of personality?
1. Appeared as Lenin's disciple. Servant of the Party. 2. Length of applause for Stalin grows longer. Huge paintings of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin appear at special occasions. 3. Paintings, poems and sculpture promote the Stalin cult. 4. Godlike.
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Long term causes of Stalin's rise to power
General Secretary. Bought in supportes in debates to outvote Zinoviev and Kamenev. Underestimated. Acted as a mediator in the background of debates. Not seen as threat. Grey blur.
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Why did dekulakisation occur?
Kulaks purged because they opposed collectivisation. Had an influence in the countryside. Were a 'scapegoat' for earlier failures of collectivisation.
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Kirov's death
1934. Threat to Stalin, could replace him. Votes were in favour of Kirov. Shot dead by Nikolayev. 1st December 1934. Arrested and executed. Bodyguard of Kirov died days later. Death of Kirov used to wage war on 'old Bolsheviks'
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The Trial of the 16
1936. Kamenev, Zinoviev and 14 others. Accused of involvement in a conspiracy organised by Trotsky to overthrow the government. All but one confessed. Found guilty. Shot next day.
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The Trial of the 17
1937. Victims accused of having links with Trotsky, setting up terrorist groups and wrecking industry. All found guilty, 13 guilty.
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The Trial of the 21
1938. Involved Bukharin, Rykov and nineteen others. Accused and confesed to being members of a Trotskyist-Rightist bloc. All found guilty and shot.
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First Five Year Plan
1928-32. Aimed to expand heavy industry (coal, iron, oil and steel). Considerable success. Number of industrial workers more than doubled. New cities built. GOSPLAN achieved considerable success.
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Second Five Year Plan
1933-37. Concentrated on making machines, especially tractos. When the USSR suffered German invasion in 1941, sufficient progress had been made to enable effective resistance.
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Third Five Year Plan
1938. Aimed to produce more consumer good for local Soviet citizens. However this was quickly transformed to building weapons, proving necessary when Germany invaded in June 1941.
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Consequences of Collectivisation
Decline in numbers of livestock and grain. Grain taken from Kolkhoz, much taken to towns for export. Peasants were a low priority.
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Success of Collectivisation
99% of land had been collectivised and farming was run by government officials. Tractors introduced. Schools established. Modernised Russia. Average crop per acre increased. 25 million indiv. farms replaced by 250,000 collectivised farms.
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Why collectivise?
Few state grain procurements. Grain produced but not reaching markets. Backward agriculture. Not enough consumer goods. Political ideology.
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Sovkhoz
Owned and run by the state. Peasants were paid a wage.
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Kolkhoz
All land was shared in common. It was run by an elected committee. It was made up of 50-100 households. All land, tools and livestock would be pooled.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What were the short term causes of the revolution?

Back

The war: midwife of revolution. Tsar as commander in chief of army in 1916: blamed for lost battles. Left Tsarina and Rasputin in charge: government fell apart. Hiring and firing of ministers. Bread riots. Food rotted at stations.

Card 3

Front

Why did the Provisional Government fail? (1)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did the Provisional Government fail? (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How did the Bolsheviks consolidate/strengthen their power?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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