Russia - Kronstadt

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 25-02-16 18:20
How far was the Kronstadt Naval Base from Petrograd?
15 miles west.
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Where is the Kronstadt Naval Base situated?
Bay of Finland.
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What did sailors and workers in the base do in the July Days?
Defied the central authorities by setting up their own government.
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What did this action cause revolutionaries in Petrograd to think?
The opportunity had come for them to bring down the Provisional Government.
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What was the attempt to bring down the Provisional Government by the revolutionaries known as?
The 'July Days'.
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On what days did the July Days take place?
3rd-6th July 1917.
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What did the Bolsheviks claim that there involvement in the July Days was?
That Bolshevism had come heroically to the aid of the workers in Petrograd and their comrades in arms, the sailors of Kronstadt, who had risen spontaneously against the government.
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When was the Kronstadt Rising?
March 1921.
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What was the Kronstadt Rising the most serios challenge to since the October Revolution?
Bolshevik control.
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By February 1921 who had crossed to the naval base?
Thousands of Petrograd workers.
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Who were these people linked up with to demonstrate greater freedom?
Sailors and dockyard workers.
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What did they demand about a workers state?
Workers should be better off and not worse than in tsarist times.
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What did Lenin do in an attempt to pacify the workers?
Sent a team of political commissars to Kronstadt.
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How was this team of political commissars greeted?
With derision (mockery).
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Who was the main spokesperson of the Kronstadt demonstrators?
Petrechenko.
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What did Petrechenko say to the team of political commissars?
"I myself was a Communist, and I call upon you, Comrades, to drive out these false Communists who set worker against peasant and peasant against worker. Enough shooting of our brothers!".
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What was Petrechenko elected to in early March by the sailors and workers of Kronstadt?
Chairman of a fifteen-man Revolutionary Committee.
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What was the Revolutionary Committee responsible for?
Representing the demonstrators' grievances to the government.
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How many terms did the committee's manifesto include?
10.
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State the first five terms of this manifesto?
New socviet elections to be held by secret ballot. Freedom of speech and of the press. Freedom of assembly. Trade unions rights and the release of imprisoned trade unionists. End to the right of Communists to be the only permitted political party.
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What frightened the Bolsheviks about the demonstrators and the manifesto?
Not the demands but the people who had drafted them, the workers and sailors of Kronstadt.
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What had Trotsky reffered to the workers and sailors of Kronstadt as?
"The heroes of the Revolution".
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What had the Bolshevik press branded the Kronstadt protestors as?
White agents.
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In reality, who were the protestors?
Genuine socialists who'd previously been wholly loyal to Lenin's government but had become appalled of the regime's betrayal of the workers' cause.
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Who did Trotsky order to destroy the protestors?
The Red Army under General Tukhachevsky to prepare to cross the late winter ice linking to Kronstadt to Petrograd.
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When he ordered this, what did Trotsky call the protestors?
"The tools of former tsarist generals and agents of the interventionists".
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What was issued to the protestors before the Red Army was sent to Kronstadt?
An ultimatum.
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Was this ultimatum accepted or rejected?
Rejected.
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What happened after the ultimatum's rejected?
Tukhachevsky ordered his force of the Red Army and Cheka detachments to attack.
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What happened in the attack?
After an artillery bombardment, 60,000 Red troops stormed the naval base.
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How did the workers and sailors respond?
They resisted fiercely and savage fighting occurred but they were overcome.
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What did the attack on Kronstadt show?
That the Bolsheviks were far from representing the nation's workers.
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What was the experience for the Bolsheviks at Kronstadt known as?
Their 'Kronstadt moment'.
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What happened to the protestors after the rising?
Surviving ringleaders were condemned as White revolutionaries and shot.
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What did the Cheka do in the leading months?
It hunted down and executed rebels who'd escaped from Kronstadt.
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What did Lenin say to justify the severity of Bolshevik/Cheka action?
"Both the Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries declared the Kronstadt movement to be their own".
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What did Lenin change about War Communism due to the rising?
Softened the severity of it to avoid scandal and embarrassment of another challenge to his party.
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At the tenth conference of the Communist Party in March 1921 what did Lenin declare about the rising?
"Lit up reality like a lightning flash".
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What did Lenin introduce to replace War Communism?
New Economic Policy (NEP).
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What was NEP intended to tackle?
The famine and consequently lessen Bolshevik opposition.
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What was the true aim of NEP?
It was an economic change and Lenin was not prepared to make political concessions as Communist control was to be made tighter.
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What were the three reasons for the introduction of the NEP including the rising?
Hunder and economic failure of War Communism.
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What did the Kronstadt Rising prove about Bolshevik control?
It was absolute.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where is the Kronstadt Naval Base situated?

Back

Bay of Finland.

Card 3

Front

What did sailors and workers in the base do in the July Days?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did this action cause revolutionaries in Petrograd to think?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the attempt to bring down the Provisional Government by the revolutionaries known as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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