Russia II

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  • Created on: 04-04-16 08:48
What did the October Manifesto grant?
Freedom of speech and assembly.
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When did Nicholas release the 'Manifesto to better the conditions of the peasant population'?
November 3rd.
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What were some caveats of the October Manifesto?
Consultative only without universal suffrage or secret ballot.
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When was Bloody Sunday?
22nd Jan
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How many marched?
150,000 opposing high taxes from Witte.
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How did hey see the Tsar?
As father of the people.
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How many were killed?
Approx 1000
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What was the effect according to Charques?
"undermine the allegiance of the common people to the throne."
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Give a long and short term cause.
The Russo-Japanese War and Nicholas' refusal to make concessions to liberal or socialist opposition.
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How many subsequently went on strike?
400,000 and by the end of January this as well as peasant disturbances had spread to other towns and cities. Poles and Finns wanted independence. Mutiny on the battleship Potemkin.
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What almost brought the economy to a standstill?
Railway workers' strike.
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What political parties were formed to demand universal suffrage and a national assembly.
The Kadets while Trotsky and the Mensheviks established the St Petersburg Soviet. By the end of the year 50 where formed across Russia.
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How did the Tsar survive?
Army crushed strikes e.g killed 1000 in Moscow. Groups had different aims. Spontaneous without leadership. Concessions made to left dividing opposition. Cancelled redemption payments.
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How much did the Trans-Siberian Railway cost in modern terms?
$50 billion
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What did Hankey say about transport?
"Russia was at a serious disadvantage" sometimes took years for messages and edicts to spread to farthest corners of Empire.
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What was its purpose according to Marks?
"It was partly military defence but it was also internal police measures"
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Why did Hankey say it was difficult?
"didn't have a great resevoir of mechanical talent"
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Why did Nicholas dissolve the committee?
Rejected the cost. Marks "They were right".
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How did Marks describe it?
"simply one of the most grandiose enterprises of the 19th century".
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What was it called?
The road to power. Nicholas laid the first piece of track.
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What percentage of the budget was used?
2/3. got foreign loans.
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How long was it?
3x the second longest railway at the time.
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Who built it?
prisoners (pay and conditions better than in prison) and 15000 workers from China. Floods and disease.
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How fast?
15mph
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What was one setback?
Supplies shipwrecked.
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Why was it dangerous?
Steel was brittle in winter. Unprepared for
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When did Alex III die?
1894
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How long did it take to cross the continent?
weeks. Used by communists to consolidate power.
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Why did Witte resign?
made scapegoat.
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How large is lake?
400 miles.
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What can it be described as?
"utopian vision"
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What percentage of Russians were illiterate?
85%
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When Alex II?
1855
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Who was he?
Head of the Russian Orthodox Church.
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What was the Crimean war over?
The Ottoman Empire.
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How large is russia?
1/6 of landmass.
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What was one effect of emancipation?
more unrest six months after than before.
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When zemstva and military reforms?
1864
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When was censorship relaxed?
1863
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What was still illegal?
trade unions.
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When was polish revolt?
1863
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When was attempted assasination of Alexander II?
1866
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What did Alex III call a constitution?
"senseless dreams"
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When was Vyshnegradsky Finance Minister?
1887-1892
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What was increased?
VAT
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What did he think would curb revolution?
industrialisation
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What was the pride of Russia (railway) built?
1891-1904 St Petersburg to Siberia. Connected to the Far East.
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What was the effect of investment in heavy industry?
Factories quadrupled in 4 years. Annual growth rate of 8%. Textiles still largest industry. 1887 - 1908 workers doubled, drawn by regular wages. Multiplier effect.
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What was this for the economy?
a "golden age"
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When was censorship tightened?
1882
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When were poor students excluded?
1884
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When was zemstva budgeted?
1890
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When were the May Laws that scapegoated Jews?
1882
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What was the quota in the army?
6%
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What was done in the 1890s?
Faked documents from the Jewish elders (elders of the Zion) to fuel antisemitism.
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What put strain on resources?
Population increase.
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Why did nobility, one of the pillars of the autocracy, decline?
Sold land to peasants.
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What were the conditions?
High inflation, low wages. No health service, sanitation or water.
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When Nicholas?
1894.
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What does he set up?
Trade unions controlled by Secret Police, although this supports capitalists.
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What was Russia to Jews?
The largest single community of Jews in the world.
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Describe Russian society.
Had not changed much in the last 100 years.
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What did Nicholas do to minimise outside influence?
restrict passports.
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What was Russia the largest producer of?
Pig-iron. Overtaken by Britain.
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What hindered industrialisation?
Under-developed banking system.
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What did Nicholas believe in?
Autocracy, orthodoxy and nationality.
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How did serfdom support this?
Kept peasants in ignorance and superstition.
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Why was widespread military control necessary?
Fewer state administrators than any country in Europe however serfsconscripted for 25 yrs.
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Why violence?
Only means of political expression.
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How did the'God ordained' tsar control the church?
Government ministerial position of the Holy Synod.
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What did Kochan say Alex II was?
"the best prepared heir the Russian throne ever had"
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What did Nicholas I tell him?
"hold on to everything"
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Who influenced him?
Liberal ministers.
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How did Chapman describe emancipation?
"the single most important law or decree issued by any tsar in 19th century Russia"
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Why was the Crimean War a disaster?
Only 60,000 of 1 million troops called. Ill equipped due to industry and disease.
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How did Nicholas I describe serfdom?
"an evil"
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What increased instability?
recruitment for the war.
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What must Alex have done to abolish serfdom?
Exercised personal commitment.
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What were serfs granted within 2 years?
Personal freedom, although the land may not have fed a family.
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What was a downside to emancipation?
Household serfs got no land. Over 600 disturbances.
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What does Hugh-Seton Watson compare it favourably to?
The abolition of slavery in 1865 USA where land and personal freedom were not guaranteed.
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What percentage of serfs became landowners within 20 yrs?
85%
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What does David Christian argue?
Peasant revolts reduced.
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What was Alex III called?
The Great Reactionary.
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How many arrested after 1881 assassination?
10,000
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Give a quote from the Manifesto of Unshakeable Autocracy.
"full faith in the justice and strength of the autocracy" Melikov resigned.
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Why was Alexander III unprepared?
His brother died.
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Why was Alexander III unprepared?
His brother died.
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How did Alex III succeed?
improved international stance
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What were downfalls of Witte?
Road and shipping behind.
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How much of government spending serviced debt?
20%
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How was Nicholas shy and unconfident?
Diary "I am not prepared to be the Tsar"
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What does Rogger say?
"Nicholas had no knowledge of the world".
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What did Trotsky say?
"Not fit to run a village post office"
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Who brought up?
Pobedonostsev.
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According to Beer, why did Russia join the war?
Defence of Russia's status as a Great Power.
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Does Beer think revolution was inevitable?
No. War.
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What did Lowe think?
Needed 20 yrs of peace.
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When was the first Duma?
1906
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When was the second?
1907
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When did Nicholas appoint himself Supreme Commander?
1915
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What was Stolypin?
PM and Minister of Interior.
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When did he set up field courts-martial?
1906
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Who did he develop a relationship with?
Octobrists.
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What was Stolypin's coup?
Fixed electoral system for 3rd and 4th Dumas.
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What did he use?
Article 87 of the Fundamental Laws, alienating liberals.
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What did he do?
Considered dangerous by the right for proposals to extend civil rights and the zemstva as well as abolishing land captains
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Give one quote from Stolypin.
"I am fighting on two fronts. I am fighting against revolution but for reform."
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How does Figes agree with many Marxist historians?
Reforms "not capable of stabilising Russia's social system after the crisis of 1905".
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How did Stolypin reform agriculture that was resisted?
1906, the head of the peasant family had the right to convert his communal strips of land into private property on fully enclosed farms outside the village (khutora) or consolidated holdings within it (otruba), also Peasant Land Bank.
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What percentage of peasants consolidated their land as a private plot?
15%
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What did he call it?
'The Wager on the Strong'
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Why did Figes think peasants resisted?
The commune had been "the focus of their lives for centuries". Fear land would be taken by a few. Difficult to organise, many had farmed the same strip for generations.
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Who dominated the first Duma?
Kadets.
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Third duma in 1907 octobrists and rightist pro grov parties dominated. Why do some think he died?
Student assassination may have been approved by the state.
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How did stat revenue increase from 1908 - 14?
2 billion - 4 billion roubles.
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How did factory workers and railway increase from 1887 - 1908?
doubled. 8% p a. Still lower growth in national income and foreign trade than european countries. Still only 2.9 workers.
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How many killed between 1906-1909
3000
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Who did Rasputin push away?
Orthodox bishops.
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Give a quote from the October Manifesto.
"The Sovereign emperor ratifies the laws"
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When was international women's day?
23th Feb, encouraged men in factories.
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What were rumours?
That bread was withheld
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Who were on leave?
sailors from a local naval base.
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What were 'comrade cossacks'?
cossacks who were not violent to people but joined them. many had families who were starving. possible self preservation
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What did Nicholas do?
Ignore telegrams. brother had refused throne
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What did one soldier say?
our "brides are begging for bread"
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Why?
treated badly, 10 days detention for not saluting.
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How many escaped Tannenburg?
10,000 of 150,000
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What did the German gov encourage?
unemployment strikes.
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What was rise in living cost?
300%
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Why was trade brought to a standstill?
Naval blockades.
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What was a problem?
Peasants sold horses at low prices. Grain needed for troops but hoarded. Food left rotting by roads.
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Why did 1000s desert?
heavy casualties. by 1914 2 rifles per 3 people.
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When/how many died Tannenburg?
August 1914. 300,000.
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What did gov do?
Prohibited vodka.
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What did the zemstva do?
Established a Union of Zemstva to provide medical facilities the state seemed to neglect.
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Where did temp fall after 1917?
-30 degrees.
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How many men called up?
14 million.
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How many killed in Tannenburg 1914?
100,000
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What nationality was the tsarina?
German
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Where did Russians drown?
Masuarian Lakes
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How many died by the end of 1914?
1 million
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What was the progressive bloc formed by duma?
alternative to tsar.
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Who did Nicholas leave?
Rasputin and tsarina.
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How many on strike Putilov factory?
40,000. Thousands of women joined demonstrations, at which point many soldiers refused to fire. Soldiers and workers marched to duma demand them to take power.
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What did Pipes say about the revolution?
"the only group interested in it was the intelligentsia"
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Quote a secret police report from St Petersburg.
"Fights and riots are breaking out in the bread queues"
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What did a leader in the Russian army say they were left with?
"skeleton forces" another said "my soldiers were disgusted" when told to shoot.
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Quote Nicholas II's Manifesto on the Declaration of War.
"to safeguard the honour, dignity and integrity"
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What was set up to solve war problems?
War Industries Committee
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Who wanted to continue the war?
Liberals and landowners.
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What did Lenin offer?
Peace, bread and land. Soldiers became just defensive.
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What did Mawdsley think of the regime?
"government hadn't changed"
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What did the July Days demand?
power to the soviets. sent artillery to Kronstadt. Sailors disappointed by his 1 minuite speech from a balcony, he thought it too early.
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What was Lenin branded?
A German spy. Warrant went out for his arrest, went into hiding.
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Who was PM?
Kerensky.
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What was the Kornilov affair?
Kerensky turned to Soviets to help fight the protestors. PM lost all support and gave weapons to the Soviets.
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What did Lenin write upon return from Finland?
"the time for it (is) fully ripe"
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What was support of Soviet given in return for?
Amnesty, freedom of speech and association, self government for the army, independent judiciary and abolition of all legal restrictions based on class, nationality or religion.
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Where did the PG only ever have power?
Petrograd, Moscow and central European areas. Committees of Publish Organisation set up in regions.
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What was removed?
Censorship. Failed to solve problems.
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When did Poland break away?
1918
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What was dual power?
Kerensky was a member of the Petrograd Soviet and PG.
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Who made up the Petrograd Soviet?
Workers and soldiers' representatives. Socialist intellectuals, mainly Mensheviks and SRs.
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Who formed the leadership?
Socialist intellectuals
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Who made up the PG?
Leading members of Kadets and other liberal parties.
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Who was leader?
Prince Lvov until a constituent assembly was elected w universal suffrage and secret ballot unlike America and UK.
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How did this set a precedent for hypocrisy and repression?
Arrested tsarist minister and officials.
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Why did Kadets not want to end war?
Thought support of GB and France needed for democracy particularly as bankrupt. Humiliation. Factions in Mensheviks and SRs wanted to negotiate peace. All in favour of defensive.
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What became clear in April?
Milyukov, Minister of War, wanted offensive territorial gains e.g Constantinople. Resignation after demonstrations in Petrograd.
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How was PG reformed 5th May?
5 socialist leaders joined the new coalition gv including Menshevik leader and SR leader Chernov. Hoped to unite peasants/workers w soviet but distanced from moderate socialism became associated w law.
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Why did army disintegrate?
Thought would get land redistributed.
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When was the July offensive?
1917 16th June 3 days
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What did Kerensky as new Minister of War do?
Launchest propoghanda campaign to mobilise forces for armed attack. Toured the front, patriotic speeches. Middle classes volunteered into shock battalions designed to raise morale. Failed.
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What was effect?
Thousands killed, territory lost. Pushed many to Bolsheviks for July Days. Moderate socialist leaders lost credibility for masses.
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How did peasants see feb rev?
opportunity for redistribution of great estates wo compensation. PG wanted to wait for Constituent Assembly, many came from landed/propertied classes.
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What did the popular Chernov propose as new Minister of Agriculture?
May, proposed scheme whereby peasants would have rights to work on private land in meantime. Blocked by PG liberals. Took land, livestock, tools and timber increased (237 cases July) w violence.
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What was the effect?
Did not recognise power of peasantry. Grain urgent in cities. Tried to fix grain prices but w rampant inflation peasants refused to sell for low prices. Sent army to requisite supplies and deal w disturbances. increased hostility.
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What about national minorities?
Kadets wanted to maintain empire. Socialists disagreed for Poles and Finns. Caucus wanted more autonomy. Weakened. 3 Kadets resigned after concessions to Ukraine.
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What about social reform?
Expected higher wages, better working conditions shorter hours and more influence. Prices rose faster than wages.
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What were the effects?
Strikes grew in size and frequency. Used lock outs. Confidence to demand rights for women/children. Factory committees.
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Why did factories close?
Failing economic situation/lack of fuel and raw materials. Some worker committees took over to save jobs usually unsuccessful. Class antagonism turned anger on PG and moderate socialist leaders in the soviet.
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What had not be solved?
Food shortages. Railway badly dislocated by war.
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How many jobs lost feb to july?
100,000. prices rose because peasants reluctant to sell grain bc harvest of 1917 poor.
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How did prices change feb-june Petrograd.
doubled. people though they were being exploited. demanded price controls and arrest of profiteers. PG under pressure from industrialists not to fix prices.
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How did Black Bread increase 1914-1917
500%
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Where were Lenin's Ten Commandments published?
Socialist Pravda (truth)
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What did Lenin believe?
Bourgeoise too weak to carry out democratic revolution. Proletariat had power within Soviet. Driving force behind it, mostly peasants.
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Why is there no need for Parliamentary democracy.
Russia special case bc peasants strong class conscience due to oppression and emancipation. Russia weakest link in Capitalist chain, would spread to Germany. Marx theory said mass proletariat (capitalism) needed.
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How did Marx and Trotsky disagree?
Marx said highly industrialised, Trotsky said backwards country.
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When Oct Rev?
25th oct. Winter palace defended by military cadets, soldiers (mostly left early drunk) and members of women's battalion (allowed to leave).
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How did they sieze the palace?
PG sent for help but had none. Bolsheviks disarmed remaining cadets. Discovered remaining assembled PG.
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How many Kronstadt sailors?
20,000
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1917 General Kornilov tried to sieze power. Army advanced on Petrograd. Bolsheviks infultrated and persuaded soldiers to desert. Red guards. What else did they do?
Organised strikes of railway workers which caused chaos to Kornilov's supplies and communications. More support for heroes. Had control of soviets by Sep.
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Card 2

Front

When did Nicholas release the 'Manifesto to better the conditions of the peasant population'?

Back

November 3rd.

Card 3

Front

What were some caveats of the October Manifesto?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When was Bloody Sunday?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many marched?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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