Russia and WW2

  • Created by: LucyLaa
  • Created on: 02-05-18 16:11
What is the Nazi-Soviet Pact also known as?
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
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What did the N-S Pact agree?
'Non-Agression Pact' and agreed to divide Poland between themselves. USSR would get Baltic States.
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What were the causes of the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
Risk of a 2-front war (36 Anti-Comintern Pact); Stalin could find no allies due to lack of trust in him; Munich Agreement was seen by Stalin as an attempt to help Hitler attack USSR; Alliances with France and Britain were rebuffed
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Why was the Pact actually negative?
Stalin failed to see that a quick victory in the West would make an attack on Soviet Union come sooner - he didn't expect the attack in June 1941
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How did the Purges weaken the army?
The leading army members had been purged, so leadership was poor.
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Was the first week a disaster?
Yes
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What was Operation Barbarossa?
Nazi Invasion of USSR
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When was Operation Barbarossa?
22nd June 1941
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How did Stalin respond?
He initially responded with depression, then showed strong leadership, total commitment and rallied the Russian people with patriotism.
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What was the Scorched Earth policy?
The destruction of all material objects of worth as the Russian forces retreated, to stop them falling into the hands of the enemy.
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Which 2 cities were under siege by the Nazis?
Leningrad and Moscow
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What did Stalin do that was inspirational?
He stayed in Moscow during the siege.
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Why was the Russian army better prepared ultimately?
Lots more tanks and aircraft; Women in factories; 5-Year Plans had created a hardy workforce used to hard labour; They don't care about people.
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Why did a late launch of OB benefit Russians?
Thick autumn mud and severe winters slowed Germans, allowing Russians to regroup and counterattack under Zhukov
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What initially happened at the front?
In many areas, the Germans were welcomed due to hatred of Stalinism, but the Slavs were treated as subhuman and this drew Bolsheviks and Russian nationalists together
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What did the siege of Leningrad result?
Wide-scale starvation resulting in 1 million deaths
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When was the full Russian offensive launched?
June 1944
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When was the Battle of Berlin?
April-May 1945
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What was WW2 also known as?
The Great Patriotic War
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What was the character of the war?
War of Attrition - Germans drawn deep into USSR until overstretched and vulnerable, then counterattacked.
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How many Prisoners of War were there?
5.25 million POWs
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How many shot or killed?
4 million
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What were POWs regarded as?
Traitors (as were their families)
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Was the USSR prepared?
Terror had purged officers (evident in the Winter War with Finland); Economy was increased massively despite chaos of 3rd 5-Yr Plan; Intelligence reports high quality but mysteriously ignored by Stalin
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In what way was Stalin very different to Nicholas II during the war?
He was an essential part of the war machine, and although he interfered too much at the beginning, he did listen to advice from Vasilevsky, Antonov and Zhukov
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What happened to industrial capacity during German advances of 1941?
There was a massive loss of capacity, and factories hastily moved East and new factories were created. Also, a major labour shortage.
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What was the T34?
A mass-produced tank that was easy to fix and use.
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Who was used as free labour?
Prisoners of war
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Industrially, why did Russia outstrip German production by the 2nd half of 1942?
Mass-Production Methods
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How was life for ordinary people during WW2?
Exceptionally hard - overworked, undernourished, very cold, harsh discipline, requisitioning possibly even worse than Civil War (bore it patriotically)
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There was a small amount of __________ _______.
Religious Revival
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What were Partisans?
Soviet freedom fighters, fighting against the guerrilla warfare enacted by the Germans
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Why was the USSR able to win?
Patriotism; Priorities in Soviet food distribution were maintained and a better transport system; Third Generation Red Army was very loyal; Geography; Weather
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What did Stalin's treatment of PoWs, deserters and non-Russian women result in?
Less sympathy and relations with the Allies during wartime conferences; less support when proposals for economic aid and reconstruction were discussed
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What happened to agriculture during WW2?
It suffered greatly (e.g. 1947 famine), as it was neglected. There was a reversion to small-scale ownership of land plots and collective farms crumbled.
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What happened to Party membership?
It increased during the war, despite heavy casualities.
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Who were the NKVD particularly harsh on during and after WW2? Why?
Balkans, Chechens, Karachans, Crimean Tartars -> accused them of collaborating with Nazis.
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Who was Zhdanov?
He was in the 1948 Politburo, and was mentioned to be Stalin's successor. However, he had ill health and died before him.
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What was the Leningrad Affair?
The purge of Zhdanov's friends and colleagues after his death in 1948
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did the N-S Pact agree?

Back

'Non-Agression Pact' and agreed to divide Poland between themselves. USSR would get Baltic States.

Card 3

Front

What were the causes of the Nazi-Soviet Pact?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was the Pact actually negative?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How did the Purges weaken the army?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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