Ruminant Digestive Tract

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What chambers are in the ruminant stomach?
Rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum
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What does the rumen do?
It is the principle site of bacterial fermentation
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Which organs are not displaced to the right by the abomasum?
Spleen, reticulum and abomasum
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What do the external grooves on the rumen mirror?
The corresponding folds and pillars dividing the rumen into interconnecting sacs
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What grooves are present on the rumen?
The rumenoreticular groove, cranial groove, left longitudinal groove, ventral coronary groove, caudal groove, dorsal coronary groove and right longitudinal groove
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What does the inside of the rumen look like?
There are ruminal pillar and ruminal papillae used for increased surface area and absorption
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Why are ruminal pillar more numerous ventrally?
Gravity pulls food downwards and gas tends to occupy the top of the rumen
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Where does the reticulum lie?
Lies Cranioventrally
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What does the inside of the reticulum look like?
Honeycomb/net-like appearance (used for increased surface area)
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Which compartment of the stomach leaves an impression on the liver?
The omasum
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What is the purpose of the omasum?
Water absorption
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What does the inside of the omasum look like?
Different leaves like in a book
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What is the purpose of the abomasum?
It is responsible for chemical digestion
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Where does the abomasum lie?
It lies mainly to the right of the rumen (displacement to left or right may occur pathologically)
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What is the purpose of the rumenoreticular groove?
Groove closes when milk is being fed so that milk bypasses the forestomachs and ends up in the abomasum
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Which main artery supplies the stomach?
Coeliac stomach
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Which artery follows the lesser curvature of the abomasum?
Right and left gastric arteries
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Which artery follows the greater curvature of the abomasum?
The left and right gastroepiploic arteries
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Which artery follows the longitudinal grooves?
The right and left ruminal arteries
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Describe venous drainage from the stomach
Mirrors arteries and drain via splenic vein to portal vein
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How is the stomach innervated parasympathetically?
Dorsal vagus to rumen and ventral vagus to reticulum, omasum and abomasum
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How is the stomach innervated sympathetically?
From the coeliac plexus with the route being similar to arteries
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What is the greater omentum attached to?
The right and left longitudinal groove of the rumen, the reticulum, the greater curvature of the abomasum and the duodenum
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What is the lesser omentum attached to?
Porta of the liver, lesser curvature of the abomasum and greater curvature of the omasum
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Why is the caecum larger in ruminants than in dogs?
Caecum does a little bit of fermentation
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Describe the ascending colon
It is made of the proximal loop, the spiral loop and the distal loop
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Where are the surgical approaches in a ruminant?
Paracostal incision and paralumbar incision
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What are the bony landmarks in a ruminant?
Lumbar vertebrae, tuber sacrale, tuber coxae, tuber ischii, grreater trochanter and the costal arch
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What are dermatomes?
Area of skin which each spinal nerve innervates. They are named after the spinal nerve which is named after the vertebra immediately cranial to it
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How do you conduct paravertebral anaesthesia?
Long needle inserted over transverse process until contact felt. Walked off the transverse process. Some anaesthetic injected to block dorsal ramus. Needle inserted through intertransverse ligament. Further anaesthetic injected to block ventral ramus
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Using landmarks how do you find where to inject a paravertebral anaesthesia?
First palpable process cranial to tuber coxae is L5. Count forward to find L1 and L2. To anaesthetise spinal nerve T13, inject cranial to the transverse process of vertebra L1.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the rumen do?

Back

It is the principle site of bacterial fermentation

Card 3

Front

Which organs are not displaced to the right by the abomasum?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do the external grooves on the rumen mirror?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What grooves are present on the rumen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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