Identifying Substances

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are common salts of sodium soluble?
yes
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are common salts of potassium soluble?
yes
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are common salts of ammonium soluble?
yes
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are nitrates soluble?
yes
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are common chlorides soluble?
yes, except silver and lead chloride
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are common sulfates soluble?
yes, except lead, barium and calcium sulfate
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are common carbonates soluble?
no, except sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate
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are common hydroxides soluble?
no, except for sodium, potassium and ammonium hydroxide
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what colour flame do sodium ions produce?
yellow
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what produces a lilac flame
potassium ions
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what produces a brick-red flame?
calcium ions
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what colour flame do copper ions produce?
blue-green
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what is a precipitation reaction?
when two soluble substances react to produce an insoluble substance
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is barium sulfate insoluble or soluble?
insoluble
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why does barium sulfate show up to x-rays?
it is opaque to them
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why can barium sulfate be safely drunk even though barium salts are toxic?
barium sulfate is insoluble so isn't absorbed into the bloodstream
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what is it known as when a patient drinks barium sulfate before and x-ray?
a barium meal
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what do you check for when testing for carbonates?
carbon dioxide (CO2)
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what is the test to test for carbonates?
Add acid. Bubble gas produced into limewater. If carbonate, limewater will turn milky as CO2 is given off.
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what do you look to see formed when testing for sulfates and chlorides?
precipitates
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what is the chemical formula for sulfate ions?
SO42-
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how do you test for sulfate ions?
Add dilute HCl, then add barium chloride solution (BaCl2). If sulfate ion - white precipitate of barium sulfate (BaSO4)
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how do you test for chloride ions?
Add dilute nitric (HNO3), then silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) = white precipitate of silver chloride (AgCl)
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what is the chemical formula for a chloride ion?
Cl-
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why is spectroscopy good?
it is fast and reliable
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how does spectroscopy work?
each element produces a different pattern of light
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give 2 elements that were discovered by spectroscopy?
rubidium and caesuim
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Card 2

Front

are common salts of potassium soluble?

Back

yes

Card 3

Front

are common salts of ammonium soluble?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

are nitrates soluble?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

are common chlorides soluble?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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