Rules of Language

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Ejusdem Generis
Specific words followed by general words, they are limited to the same kind as the specific words
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Powell V Kempton Park Racecourse
D was charged with keeping a 'house, office, room or other place for betting'....He had been operating betting at an outdoor racecourse
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Powell V Kempton Park Racecourse Outcome?
Not guilty, the specific words in the list were indoor places, therefore the phrase 'other places' only applied to indoor places
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Expressio Rule
Where there is a list of words not followed by general words, the act only applies to those words in the list
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Tempest V Kilner
Act required a contract for the sale of 'goods, wares and merchandise' of more than £10 to be evidenced in writing.....Court had to decide if the act applied to stocks and shares
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Tempest V Kilner Outcome
Act did not apply to stocks and shares under Expressio rule, this is because they are not mentioned in the list
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Noscitur a Sociis
This rule involves looking at other words in the act, words take their meanings from the words around them & the words are looked at in context
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Inland Revenue Commissioners V Frere
Section of the act sets out rules for 'interest, annuities or other annual interest'.....the first use of the word interest could have meant daily, monthly or annual inetrest
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Inland Revenue Commissioners V Frere outcome
Because of the words 'other annual intersts' in the section, the court decided that 'interest' only meant annual interest
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

D was charged with keeping a 'house, office, room or other place for betting'....He had been operating betting at an outdoor racecourse

Back

Powell V Kempton Park Racecourse

Card 3

Front

Not guilty, the specific words in the list were indoor places, therefore the phrase 'other places' only applied to indoor places

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where there is a list of words not followed by general words, the act only applies to those words in the list

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Act required a contract for the sale of 'goods, wares and merchandise' of more than £10 to be evidenced in writing.....Court had to decide if the act applied to stocks and shares

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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