R.S Medical Ethics

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what is the sanctity of life?
The belief that all life is given by God
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Definition of abortion?
The deliberate termination of a human pregnancy
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How many weeks is abortion allowed up to in the UK?
24 weeks
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How many doctors have to agree that abortion is necessary?
Two
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What are reasons for doctors allowing abortion?
If the mothers life is at risk, risk the child will be born seriously handicapped, metal or physical health of the women is at risk and finally the existing family and children will suffer if the pregnancy continues
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Reasons abortions are allowed after 24 weeks are?
1. Continuing with pregnancy put the mothers life at risk 2. The foetus is found to have mental or physical abnormaltites as to be seriously handicapped
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What do Roman Catholics believe abortion is?
Morally wrong in all circumstances
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What is one reason Roman Catholics believe abortion is morally wrong?
The life begins at the moment of conception
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What do Roman Catholics believe the newly conceived baby has?
The same right to life as its mother
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A quote from the bible for Roman Catholics being against abortion?
'Do not kill'
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What type of Roman Catholics may justify abortion?
Pro-life Roman Catholics
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What do pro-life Roman Catholics justify abortion with?
doctrine of double effect
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What is the doctrine of double effect?
If doing something morally good has a morally bad side effect, it is right to do if the bad side effect was not intend even if you knew it was going to happen
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What is an example of where the doctrine of double effect can be used?
An ectopic pregnancy
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What is an ectopic pregnancy?
Where the embryo is developing in the fallopian tubes, its acceptable to remove the embryo as the intention is to save the life of the mother rather than kill the foetus
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Church of England's opinion on abortion?
They oppose it but recognise in certain conditions where it could be morally acceptable
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What circumstances do Church of England's think abortion could be morally acceptable?
1. Threatens the life of the mother 2. Rape 2. Foetus is seriously handicapped
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Definition of fertility treatment?
the application of any of various methods or procedures to a woman or man to increase the woman's chances of conceiving a baby
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What are the 5 types of fertility treatment?
IVF, AI, AIH, AID, surrogacy
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Definition of IVF?
egg and sperm are put together in a test-tube and then the embryo is inserted back into the womens body
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Definition of AI?
Sperm is collected and placed into the womens uterus artificially
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Definition of AIH?
Artificial insemination using the husbands sperm
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Definition of AID?
Artificial insemination using a donors sperm
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Why might AID be used?
If the husbands sperm are not healthy or if the women has no parnter
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Definition of surrogacy?
If a women cannot have children her husbands sperm is used to impregnate another women, the women gives birth to the baby and hands it back to the couple
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What are reasons Christians have to support IVF and AI?
1. Bring happiness to those who wouldn't be able to have children 2. If life comes from God then anything that creates life must be good 2. In Genesis God told Adam and Eve to 'be fruitful and increase in number' this means God wants us to have kids
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AGAPE is a reason that Christians support IVF and AI, what does it mean?
Most loving action is to offer medical help and use these God given gifts of healing
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The golden rule of Christianity is a reason that Christians support IVF and Ai, what is the golden rule?
'Do to others as you would have them do to you.' If you were desperate for a children wouldn't you want someone to help you?
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What are reasons Christians have against IVF and AI?
1. God chooses whether people have children or not, its Gods will 2. Its against the 'natural law' to create a children in any other way than sex 3. God may have chosen these people to devote their lives to other kinds of Christian work
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In the Roman Catholic Church when is IVF acceptable?
1. No spare embryos are created 2. No 3rd parties are used 3. They do not replace sex within a marriage
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Why don't the Roman Catholics agree with spare embryos?
Because at the moment of conception the embryos is a life
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In the Roman Catholic Church when is AI acceptable?
Only if the husbands sperm is used
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Why isn't AID acceptable in the Roman Catholic Church?
Using a donor is wrong as it brings a 3rd party into the marriage
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Why is it wrong to being a 3rd party into the marriage?
Marriage is between one man and one women
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What do the Church of England think about IVF?
It is acceptable in all forms including the donation of eggs and sperm by donors.
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What is Church of England opinions on spare embryos?
It is acceptable to experiment on them up to 14 days after fertilisation.
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Why do the Church of England thinks its acceptable to experiment on embryos up to 14 days after fertilisation?
Because at 14 days a foetus can split into 2 and form twins, therefore its not a human life until 14 days
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What are churches opinion on surrogacy?
That it is wrong
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Why do churches believe surrogacy is wrong?
1. It involves a 3rd party in a much bigger way than donated eggs and sperm 2. It strikes at the heart of the family 3. It can cause massive problems for everyone concerned, including the child
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What is a definition of Cloning?
The deliberate production of genetically identical offspring
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What are the 3 different types of cloning?
1. DNA cloning 2. Reproductive cloning 3.Therupuctic cloning
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Definition of DNA cloning?
Multiple identical copies are made of a DNA sequence and are used in biological and technical experiments
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Definition of reproductive cloning?
Production of animal that has the same DNA as another animal
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What is an example of reproductive cloning?
Dolly the sheep
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Definition of therupuctic cloning?
Production of human embryos in order to gather stem cells for use in research
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What do scientists hope that therupuctic cloning will do?
They hope the research on stem cells will lead to the creation of replacement cells to treat hear disease, cancer and other diseases
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What do Christians think about cloning?
Not all agree with the subject, depends on their view of the stays of the embryo
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Why does it depend on their view of the embryo?
As some Christians believe the embryo is a life at the moment of conception they believe that the embryo is a human person with human rights and its experimentation on live people.
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What might conservative Christians feel distressed about in cloning?
The killing of clones during genetic testing because they think of each clone as a human being so they would regard this as murder
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What are the Catholic Church's teachings on cloning?
Research on cloned human embryos is wrong, unnatural and removes dignity from human life.
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What are the Church of England's teachings on cloning?
It is good to seek cures for diseases through cloning embryos and stem cell research. Only acceptable to research on embryos up to 14 days of development
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What is a definition of euthanasia?
The act or practice of killing someone who is very sick or injured in order to prevent any more suffering.
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What is voluntary euthanasia?
Where the persons wants to die and says so. Patient might ask for help with dying, refuse to eat, refuse medical treatment
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What is non-voluntary euthanasia?
Where the person can't make a decision or cannot make their wishes known. The patient might be in a coma, too young or mentally retarded
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What is involuntary euthanasia?
The person wants to live but is killed anyway. This is usually murder but not always
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What is active euthanasia?
When death is brought on by an act by medical professionals or another person
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What is an example of active euthanasia?
Injecting the patients with a lethal dose of a drug or giving them a over dose
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What is passive euthanasia?
When death is brought on by an omission, medical professionals don't do something to keep the person alive
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What is an example of passive euthanasia?
Not carrying out a life saving operation and not giving the person life-extending drugs
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Where is euthanasia legal and illegal?
Its against the law in the UK but legal elsewhere in places such as Switzerland
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What is not illegal in the UK?
The withdrawal of treatment, if the patient requests this then treatment must be stopped.
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What do the Roman Catholic Church think about euthanasia?
They oppose it
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What do the Roman Catholic Church teach about euthanasia?
Any act that deliberately causes death is the same as murder.
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What is a bible quote that supports the Roman Catholic Church teaches on euthanasia?
'Do not kill.'
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What does the Church of England teach about euthanasia?
Although the deliberate taking of a life is forbidden there are strong arguments that people should not be kept alive at all costs when they are suffering intolerable pain.
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What are hospices?
Specialist care homes where people may go if they have a terminal illness
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Why were hospices set up?
As an alternative to euthanasia and as part of Christian response to death and dying. Christians feel they should help the sick and theses who are suffering
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Who are hospices run by?
Specialists doctors, nursers, careers and volunteers ho are trained in providing care and support
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What are hospices services?
1. Support for families 2. Counselling and a calm environment to try to be more like a home than a hospital 3. Pain and symptom control
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What do many hospices have?
Many seek to offer spiritual support to have chapels, places where you can go fro confession or bereavement counselling
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What is the definition of suicide?
The deliberate taking of your own lfe
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When did suicide stop being a crime in the UK?
In 1961
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What do many Catholics believe about suicide?
That it is a sin and they will not go to heaven if they commit suicide.
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Why do many Catholics believe suicide is a sin?
Because they believe life is a gift given to us by God
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What do many Christians believe about suicide?
That it is morally wrong but are now more compassionate than judgemental to those who are suicidal
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When and who by was the Samaritans set up by?
In 1953 by a Christian priest
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What do the Samaritans offer?
They offer support and advice for people who are depressed and suicidal. Also a 24 hour telephone counselling service.
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What is the definition of infertile?
Someone who is unable to conceive naturally
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What is palliative care?
Care given to a terminally ill patient to help them die in as much comfort as possible
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What are pro-choice Christians?
They believe a women has the right to choose whether to go ahead with the pregnancy or not
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What are pro-lifeChristians?
They are opposed to abortion and believe all human life should be protected
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Definition of abortion?

Back

The deliberate termination of a human pregnancy

Card 3

Front

How many weeks is abortion allowed up to in the UK?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many doctors have to agree that abortion is necessary?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are reasons for doctors allowing abortion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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