R.S - Whole topic revision cards

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  • Created on: 22-09-15 21:02
What does 'sanctity of life' mean?
Life is sacred because it is God-given.
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Define abortion.
The deliberate termination (ending) of a pregnancy, usually before the foetus is 24 weeks old.
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What does 'pro-choice' mean?
The view that women should have a right to choose whether or not to have an abortion.
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What does 'pro-life' mean?
The view that supports the right to life of the foetus.
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Define euthanasia.
Inducing a painless death (with compassion), to ease suffering.
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What is 'quality of life'?
A measure of fulfilment.
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What is 'voluntary euthanasia'?
When a terminally ill person asks a doctor/friend to help them die peacefully and with dignity.
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Give the two different names euthanasia is sometimes called.
Mercy killing or assisted suicide.
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What is 'active euthanasia'?
The ending of a life by deliberate action (e.g. giving a patient a fatal injection).
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What is 'passive euthanasia'?
Allowing a terminally ill person to die by withdrawing medical treatment that would prolong suffering with no real benefit.
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What is a hospice?
Special places to which people go to die with dignity.
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Define 'artificial insemination (AI)'.
Sperm medically inserted into the ****** to assist pregnancy.
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Define 'artificial insemination by husband (AIH)'.
When a woman is made pregnant by the sperm of her husband, but not through having sexual relations with him.
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Define 'artificial insemination by donor (AID)'.
When a woman is made pregnant by the sperm of a man other than her partner, but not through having sexual relations with him.
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What is in-vitro fertilisation (IVF)?
A scientific method of making a woman pregnant, which doesn't involve sex. Conception occurs via sperm and egg being placed into a test tube.
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What is a 'surrogate mother'?
A woman who has a baby for another woman.
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Define 'surrogacy'.
A form of fertility treatment where a woman's egg is fertilised artificially and then implanted into the 'host'. The baby is given to the couple after birth.
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Define 'cloning'.
The scientific method by which animals/plants can be created and have the same genetic make-up as the original.
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What is an embryo?
Fertilised ovum (egg) at about 12-14 days when implanted into the wall of the womb.
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Define 'reproductive cloning'.
The use of cloning techniques to produce a baby.
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What is 'therapeutic cloning'?
Another term for 'stem cell cloning'.
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What does the term 'designer baby' mean?
Babies with gender/characteristics chosen by their parents (currently illegal).
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What is the 'age of consent'?
The legal age for sex to be treated as by agreement.
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Define the term 'homosexual'.
To be attracted to a person of the same sex.
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Define the term 'heterosexual'.
To be attracted to a person of the opposite sex.
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What is 'chastity'?
Sexual purity - not having sex before marriage.
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Define 'contraception'.
The artificial and chemical methods used to prevent pregnancy taking place.
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What is marriage?
A legal union between a man and a woman.
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What is a marriage ceremony?
The ceremony in which a man and woman marry.
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Define the term 'cohabitation'.
A couple living together and having a sexual relationship without being married to one another.
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Define the term 'civil partnership'.
Legal registration and recognition of a same-sex partnership.
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What is marital breakdown?
When a husband and wife no longer get on with each other, leading to the end of the marriage by divorce/separation.
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What is divorce?
The legal ending of a marriage.
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What is remarriage?
When people who have been married before marry again.
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Define 'prejudice'.
Unfairly judging someone before the facts are known - holding biased opinions about an individual group.
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Define 'discrimination'.
Acting against someone on the basis of sex, race, religion etc.
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What are samaritans?
A group of people in biblical times considered by some Jews to have abandoned the Jewish faith by marrying foreigners and taking on foreign religious beliefs.
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Define the term 'race'.
A group of people with the same ethnic background.
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What is gender?
Another word for someone's sex i.e. male/female.
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Define the word 'disability'.
When a person has physical/mental conditions that limit movement/activities.
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Define 'stewardship'.
The belief that believers have a duty to look after the environment on behalf of God.
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What is pollution?
The contamination of something, especially the environment.
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What are natural resources?
Resources that are a part of the environment e.g. water, minerals etc. which are often abused by humans.
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What is a natural habitat?
The places where species of plants and animals live in the wild.
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Define the term 'climate change'.
Changes to the climate. believed by some scientists to be irreparably damaged, that have been caused by human lifestyles.
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What is recycling?
Reusing materials e.g. paper/plastic, in the interests of environment conservation.
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What are earth summits?
Meetings of international leaders aimed at reaching an agreement that will reduce environment pollution and climate change.
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Define 'justice'.
Bringing about what is right and fair, according to the law or making up a wrong that has been committed.
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What is a 'less economically developed country'?
A phrase used to describe a third-world country or 'developing nation'.
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Define 'world poverty'.
The idea that the majority of the world's population actually live in conditions of extreme need/hardship.
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Give the three variations of the definition of a charity.
1) Voluntarily giving help, such as money, to those in need. 2) An organisation that helps those in need. 3) Christian love for the needy.
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What is 'fair trade'?
A method of trade in which the producer of the product receives fair payment for their product.
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What is 'aid'?
Helping/assisting people in need usually by practical assistance or gifts.
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What is the Catholic Fund for Overseas Development (CAFOD)?
A charity established by the Bishops of England and Wales to bring aid to less economically developed countries.
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Define 'emergency aid'.
(Also known as short-term aid) help given to communities in a time of disaster/crisis e.g. food during a famine.
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Define 'long-term aid'.
Helping people to help themselves by providing the tools, education and funding for projects.
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What is a 'just war'?
A war that the Chrisitian Churches define as acceptable. This must fit certain criteria. The idea was developed by St Thomas Aquinas and the Roman Catholic Church.
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What is 'pacifism'?
The belief that it is unacceptable to take part in war or any other form of violence.
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What is a quaker?
A member of the Society of Friends, a tradition that doesn't have ministers or written statements of belief.
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Define the term 'terrorism'.
When groups use violence, or the threat of violence, to achieve their aims, rather than using a democratic process. The violence is often indiscriminate, to create maximum fear.
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What is a nuclear war?
A war in which the participants use nuclear weapons.
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What does the term 'nucleaur proliferation' mean?
The increase in the number of states that have the potential to use nuclear weapons.
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Define 'retribution'.
To 'get your own back' on the criminal, based on the teaching of the Old Testament (an eye for an eye). An aim of punishment aimed at being proportionate to the crime committed.
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What does term 'reform' mean?
To change someone's behaviour for the better (an aim of punishment).
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What does 'deterrence' mean?
To put people off committing crimes (an aim of the punishment).
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What is 'protection'?
To stop the criminal hurting anyone in society (an aim of punishment).
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What are the four aims of punishment?
Retribution, reformation, deterrence and protection.
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What is an 'offender'?
Someone who has done something wrong e.g. broken the law.
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Define the term 'capital punishment'.
Form of punishment in which a prisoner is put to death for crimes committed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define abortion.

Back

The deliberate termination (ending) of a pregnancy, usually before the foetus is 24 weeks old.

Card 3

Front

What does 'pro-choice' mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does 'pro-life' mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define euthanasia.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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