RS - Buddhism Key Words: Chapter 1

Buddhism
A religion founded around 2500 years ago by Siddhartha Gautama
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Buddha
A title given to someone who as achieved enlightenment; usually used to refer to Siddhartha Gautama
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The four sights
Old age, illness, death, and a holy man; these four sights led the Buddha to leave his life of luxury in the palace
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Jataka
The Jataka tales are popular stories about the lives of the Buddha
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Ascetic
Living a simple and strict lifestyle with few pleasures or possessions; someone who follows ascetic practices
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Meditation
A practice of calming and focusing the mind, and reflecting deeply on specific teachings to penetrate their true meaning
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Enlightenment
The gaining of true knowledge about God, self or the nature of reality, usually through meditation or self discipline; in Buddhist, Hindu or Sikh traditions, gaining freedom from the cycle of rebirths
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Mara
A demon that represents spiritual obstacles, especially temptation
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The three watches of the night
The three realisations that the Buddha made in order to achieve enlightenment
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The five ascetics
The Buddha's first five students; five monks who followed ascetic practices
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Dhamma (Dharma)
The Buddha's teachings
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Pali
The language of the earliest Buddhist scriptures
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Sanskrit
The language used in later Indian Buddhist texts
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Dependent arising
The idea that all things arise in dependence upon conditions
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The Tibetan Wheel of Life
An image that symbolises samsara, often found in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries and temples
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Nidanas
12 factors that illustrate the process of birth, death and rebirth
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Samsara
The repeating cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth
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Kamma (karma)
A person's actions; the idea that skilful actions result in happiness and unskilful ones in suffering
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Nibbana (nirvana)
A state of complete enlightenment, happiness and peace
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Dukkha
The first noble truth: there is suffering
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Anicca
Impermanence; the idea that everything changes
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Anatta
The idea that people do not have a permanent, fixed self or soul
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The five aggregates
The five aspects that make up a person
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The Four Noble Truths
The four truths that the Buddha taught about suffering
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Samudaya
The second noble truth: there are causes of suffering
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Nirodha
The third noble truth: suffering can be stopped
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Magga
The fourth noble truth: the way to stop suffering; the Eightfold Path
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Theravada Buddhism
‘The school of the elders’; an ancient Buddhist tradition found in southern Asia
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Mahayana Buddhism
An umbrella term to describe some later Buddhist traditions, including Pure Land Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism and Zen Buddhism
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Tanha
Craving (desiring or wanting something)
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The three poisons
Greed, hatred and ignorance; the main causes of suffering
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The Eightfold Path
Eight aspects that Buddhists practise and live by in order to achieve enlightenment
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The threefold way
The Eightfold Path grouped into the three sections of ethics, meditation and wisdom
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Ethics (sila)
A section of the threefold way that emphasises the importance of skilful action as the basis for spiritual progress
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Meditation (samadhi)
A section of the threefold way that emphasises the role of meditation in the process of spiritual development
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Wisdom (panna)
A section of the threefold way that deals with Buddhist approaches to understanding the nature of reality
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Sunyata
Emptiness; the concept that nothing has a separate, independent 'self' or 'soul'
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Buddha-nature
The idea that everyone has the essence of a Buddha inside them
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Buddhahood
When someone achieves enlightenment and becomes a Buddha
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Arhat
For Theravada Buddhists, someone who has become enlightened
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Bodhisattva
For Mahayana Buddhists, someone who has become enlightened but chooses to stay in the cycle of samsara to help others achieve enlightenment as well
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Pure Land Buddhism
A Mahayana form of Buddhism based on belief in Amitabha Buddha
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Amitabha Buddha
The Buddha worshipped by Pure Land Buddhists
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Sukhavati
The paradise where Amitabha Buddha lives, and where Pure Land Buddhists aim to be reborn
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A title given to someone who as achieved enlightenment; usually used to refer to Siddhartha Gautama

Back

Buddha

Card 3

Front

Old age, illness, death, and a holy man; these four sights led the Buddha to leave his life of luxury in the palace

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The Jataka tales are popular stories about the lives of the Buddha

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Living a simple and strict lifestyle with few pleasures or possessions; someone who follows ascetic practices

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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