Roles and Power Relationships Between Couples LT2

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 28-03-15 14:13
What is the definition of domestic division of labour?
Gender roles that men a women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work,
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What sociologist distinguished between the types of conjugal roles and what are they?
-Elizabeth Bott, -Segragated-Couples have separate roles, -Joint- Couples have shared roles,
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Give an example of a functionalist who sees that type gender roles in a traditional nucleur family?
-Parsons, -Segregated conjugal roles
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Give the two types of roles which Functionalists believe men and women should have and their definitions?
-Instrumental Role- men go out to work and act as the financial breadwinner, 3)Expressive Role-Women act as homemakers and carers,
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What does parson claim as the reason for segregated conjugal roles in nucleur families?
Parson claims this division of labour is based on biological differences. He claims women are 'naturally' suited to a nurturing role and men as the providor,
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Which sociological group supports this view?
The New Right,
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However, what is an evaluative point about Functionalists views on the division of labour being natural?
It is socially created and largely benefits men,
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What is another evaluative point about the Functionalists views based on the fact it was created in the 1950s?
It is an outdated view and now men are taking a greater share of domestic tasks and many women are financial providors,
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What sociologist argues for the march of progresses view on the roles of men and women?
Young and Willmott
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What type of study was this?
Early empirical study,
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What do the march of progress view believe are happening to families over time?
They are becoming more equal. There are movements towards a symmetrical family,
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In a symmetrical family, what is the term used to describe the roles of the husband and wife being shared or similar?
Joint conjugal roles
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Describe the march of Progresses view on the roles of men and women in joint conjugal roles?
Women-work part time or full time, men-Help with housework and childcare,
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When do couples in a joint conjugal role spend time with each other?
During leisure time,
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What do Young and Willmott mean by saying the symmetrical family is 'privatised'?
That they are child centred, home centred, small and increasngly affluent,
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What are three reasons for the symmetrical family?
-New Technology, -Greater affluence, -Changes in the position of women,
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How has new technology created a symmetrical family?
Labour saving devices have been created-People can work from home, less physical strength needed in the workplace etc,
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What does the term 'Greater affluence' mean and how it creates a symmetrical family?
It means making the home more attractive for men so they are more likely to help with child and house care.
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How has the changes in the position of women created a symmetrical family?
As there is more equality between the genders and more women are going out to work,
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In Willmott and Young's study, who did they find symmetrical families were more common among?
-Younger Couples, -Those geographically and socially isolated, -Affluent-better off,
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What are early feminists views on the march of progress view and why?
They reject the March of progress view and believe family relationships are unequal,
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What feminist argued the family wasnt symmetrical due to the role of men and why?
Oakley- She argued only a small % of husbands have a high level of housework participation (15%) and childcare (25%). she argued men may 'help' but seldom take 'responsibility' for domestic tasks,
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What did Oakley argue about the work for women?
She argued it was low paid and an extension of their 'housewife' role e.g. nursing/childcare,
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In a recent empirical study, what sociologist argued there were trens towards a symmetrical family?
Sullivan
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What two reasons did Sullivan argue had changed for symmetrical families to appear?
1) Increases in the number of couples with an equal division of labour, 2) men participating more in traditional 'women's tasks' (new men),
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What are three reasons for new symmetry?
1) increase in the number of women working, 2) Shifting social attitudes, 3) Commercialisation of housework
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Why has an increase in the number of women working led to new symmetry in families?
There is the need to share more e.g. housework, childcare. More money can be spent in buying in help e.g. cleaners,
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What other sociologist found similar evidence to support this and what?
Gershung-Found wives who worked full time did less domestic work- Wives who didnt work-83% of domestic work but wives who worked part time-73%
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How has commercialisation of housework led to new symmetry in families?
THe mass production of goods such as 'ready meals', microwaves etc reduce the amount of domestic labour needed to be done,
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What sociologist supported that commercialisation led to new symmetry and what?
Schor-Claims this has led to the 'death of the housewife role',
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What are recent feminist views on the family?
It remains patriarchal,
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What do feminists argue about women being exploited by the Dual burden?
That women increasingly are doign paid work and unpaid housework,
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What do feminists argue about women being exploited by the triple shift?
That women are increasingly doing paid work, unpaid domestic work and emotional work- Offering love, sympathy, praise, tenderness, attention etc)
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What do feminists argue about tasks around the home and an example?
They argue tasks remain gendered e.g. men-DIY, women- ironing
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What are two reasons for current gender inequality?
-Gender Scripts, 2) Patriarchy
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What are gender scripts?
-Social expectations that set out the gender roles of heterosexual couples
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How doe gender scripts create gender inequality?
men and women feel pressurised to carry out domestic tasks that confirm their gender identities,
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What sociologist found evidence to support that gender scripts were still evident?
Hetherington-Wives x30 more likely to have been the last person to do the washing up and men x4 to have been the last person to wash the car,
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How does patriarchy create gender inequality?
As it lead to women earning less and so have less bargaining power in the home,
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What is an evaluative point for the above theories and evidence in terms of social class?
They ignore important variations in social class for divisions of labour.g. better paid and educated women do less housework and childcare. Poorer social groups cannot buy commercialisation of housework and day care for children,
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Why is there more symmetry in lesbien couple relationships?
AS household tasks are not linked to gender scripts or patriarchy- more freedom to construct relationships based on choice,
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What sociologist supports these views and what do they argue?
Dunne-Argues Lesbian and heterosexual couples interact in different ways. hereosexuals are under pressure to conform,
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What is an evaluative point for the above theories and evidence in terms of sexuality?
They ignore important variations in sexuality as lesbein couples tend to have a more symmetry in their relationship. Housework and childcare are often shared and open for discussion as equal importance attatched to both partner careers,
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What is the last evaluative point on the above theories in terms of their methods which are time-based surveys?
1) Women underestimate and men overestimate time spent on domestic tasks, 2) They tell us little about the level of satisfaction gained from tasks carried out
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For resources, what sociologist argues the invalue of men's financial support?
Barrett and McIntosh
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What two points does Barrett and McIntosh argue about the invalue of men's financial support?
1) Financial support men provide is worth less than the domestic work women perform, 2) Financial support men provide is often unpredictable and 'strings' attached,
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What does other feminist research show about women in low income families?
They show women are more likely to deny themselves food and their own needs in order to put their families first,
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What does other feminist research show about women who separate from their husbands?
They state women who separate from their husbands and rely on benefits are often financially better off,
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For decision making with in a household, what does evidence show about financial resources?
That more households are pooling financial resources rather than operating an 'allowance' system controlled by men
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However, what does research show are the major financial decisions?
That men do make most of the major financial and economic decisions,
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What did Edgell find about who makes the very important decisions in the relationship and examples?
-Moving house, change of job, -Largely decided by men,
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What did Edgell find about who makes the important decisions in their relationship and examples?
-Children's education, holdiays, -Taken jointly,
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What did Edgell find out about who makes the less important decisions in the relationship and examples?
-Decor, -Children's clothes, -Mainly women,
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What are three reasons for inequality for the resources and decision making?
-Men earn more, -Patriarchy, -Enforced through actual/threat of domestic violence,
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How does men earning more lead to inequality?
As it creates female economic dependency as men have the power and control to say how money is spent,
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How does patriarchy lead to inequality?
As couples are socialised to believe the husband is the head of the household,
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What is the definition of domestic violence?
Physical, sexual and psychological avuse between those in a family-type relationship,
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What sociologisy used statistical evidence to find out about domestic violence?
Mirrlees-Black
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What did Mirrlees-Black find about the number of assults each year and how many involved physical injury?
-6.6 million, -Half involving physical injury,
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What did Mirrlees-Black find out about who is most likely to be victim to domestic abuse?
-Women, -Children, -Elderly, -Working class
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How many women on average are assulted by their partners in their lifetimes?
1 in 4 women,
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However,what are the problems with statisitcs when investigating domestic abuse?
It underestimates the size of the problem.
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What are two reasons why statistics will underestimate the size of the problem?
1) Victimes unwilling to report- fear of reprisals, 2) Police and CPS reluctant to involve themselves in family life- assume that women are 'free' to leave,
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What do radical feminists argue the reason for domestic violence is?
patriarchy,
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Give a radical feminist sociologist who supports this view?
Dobash and Dobash,
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Why do radical feminists argue patriarchy is the reason for domestic violence?
As it is the product of male domination, power and control. Women slapped, beaten, ***** or killed are often triggered by the husband's perception his wife was challenging his authority,
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How does patriarchy explain why domestic violcence isnt effectively dealth with?
Due to male domination inthe police and judiciary,
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What is an evluative point of radical feminists views?
That they overgeneralises- only explains domestic violence carried out against women, not all men are violent and growign numbers of men are victims,
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What did Wilkinson aruge was the main cause of domestic violence and why?
The product of stress that go with social inequality- Families with insecure jobs live on low incomes and in overcrowded houses experience more stresses, straining family relationships and increasing chance of domestic violence,
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What is an evaluative point against Wilkinsons' view?
It doesnt adequately explain why women are at a greater risk of domestic violence than men,
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Give an example of a Marxist feminist and what they argue leads to domestic violence?
-Ansley, -Claims domestic violence can be seen as an outlet of men's frustration with the exploitation and alienation they experience in the workplace,
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What is an evaluative point on marxist-feminists views?
Economically deterministic- too readily simplifies domestic violence to the economy,
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What is the conclusion for roles and power relationships between couples?
Despite moves towards greater inequality, patriarchy still serves to oppress women. Many women in the 21st Century carry out a triple shift, have less say in financial decision making and are victimes of domestic violence
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Card 2

Front

What sociologist distinguished between the types of conjugal roles and what are they?

Back

-Elizabeth Bott, -Segragated-Couples have separate roles, -Joint- Couples have shared roles,

Card 3

Front

Give an example of a functionalist who sees that type gender roles in a traditional nucleur family?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give the two types of roles which Functionalists believe men and women should have and their definitions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does parson claim as the reason for segregated conjugal roles in nucleur families?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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