Role of genes and hormones in gender development

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How is AIS brought about?
If a genetic male embryo is exposed to too little testosterone the newborn appears externally to be female.Conversely if genetic females are exposed to too much testosterone the result is ambiguous genitalia.
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what have Berenbaum and Bailey (2003) suggested about AIS?
They have indicated that AIS females are often interested in male type activities, and are 'tomboyish' due to the influence of male hormones.
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What did Geschwind and Galaburda (1987) suggest?
That sex differences may be caused by the effects of testosterone levels on the developing brain.Thus male brains are exposed to more testosterone than female brains and this leads to a 'masculinsed' brain.
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supporting evidence for masculinised brain. Quadagno et al, (1977)
Found female monkeys who were deliberately exposed to testosterone during prenatal development then they were more agressive and later engaged in more rough-and-tumble play.
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Money and Ehrhardt, (1972)
argued nurture was more important. and intersex individuals such as David Reimer could be successfully raised as either gender.
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Reiner and Gearhart (2004)
studied 16 males born with almost no penis. 2 were raised as male (and remained as males). The remaing 14 were raised female, 8 reassigned themselves by the age of 16.This suggests biological factors do have a key role in gender development.
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Card 2

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what have Berenbaum and Bailey (2003) suggested about AIS?

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They have indicated that AIS females are often interested in male type activities, and are 'tomboyish' due to the influence of male hormones.

Card 3

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What did Geschwind and Galaburda (1987) suggest?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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supporting evidence for masculinised brain. Quadagno et al, (1977)

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Card 5

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Money and Ehrhardt, (1972)

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