Rocks, Resources and Scenery Flashcards

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  • Created by: AKR28
  • Created on: 30-12-13 17:34
How are igneous rocks formed?
Igneous rocks are formed by the cooling of molten magma either underground (intrusive) or on the ground (extrusive) by volcanic activity.
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What are the characteristics of igneous rocks?
Igneous rocks are composed of interlocking crystals (they are said to be crystalline). They are generally tough rocks which are resistant to erosion.
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Give examples of igneous rocks.
Basalt, andesite and rhyolite are examples of extrusive igneous rocks. Granite, gabbro and dolerite are examples of intrusive igneous rocks.
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How are sedimentary rocks formed?
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments; usually deposited in the sea. Also includes organic material (coal) and rocks precipitated from solution (limestone).
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What are the characteristics of sedimentary rocks?
Sedimentary rocks usually form layers called beds. They often contain fossils. Although some rocks can be tough (limestone) most are weaker than igneous and metamorphic rocks.
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Give examples of sedimentary rocks.
Common sedimentary rocks include sandstone, limestone, shale, clay and mudstone. The rock chalk is a form of limestone.
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How are metamorphic rocks formed?
Metamorphic rocks are formed by the alteration of pre-existing igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rocks by heat and/or pressure.
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What are the characteristics of metamorphic rocks?
Metamorphic rocks are crystalline. They often exhibit layering (not beds) called cleavage and banding. Metamorphic rocks tend to be very tough and resistant to erosion.
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Give examples of metamorphic rocks.
Slate is one of the most common metamorphic rocks. Other examples include gneiss and schist.
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What is mechanical weathering?
Mechanical weathering, also known as physical weathering, involves the disintegration of rocks without any chemical changes taking place. It often results in piles of angular rock fragments called scree found at the foot of bare rocky outcrops.
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What is chemical weathering?
Chemical weathering is when a chemical change occurs when weathering takes place. Rainwater, being slightly acidic, can slowly dissolve certain rocks and minerals.
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What is biological weathering?
Biological weathering involves the actions of flora and fauna. Plant roots are effective at growing and expanding in cracks in the rocks. Rabbits can effective in burrowing into weak rocks such as sands.
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What is exfoliation?
Exfoliation, also known as onion-skin weathering, is where the outer layer of a rock is weathered by the fluctuations of temperature. These changes in temperature cause thermal expansion and contraction of rocks which weakens them.
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What is a batholith?
A batholith is a huge irregular-shaped mass of igneous rock that only reaches the surface when overlying rocks are eroded.
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What are the characteristics of granite?
Granite contains cracks or joints which make it vulnerable to freeze-thaw weathering. However, it is a tough rock which is fairly resistant to erosion. Granite consists of quartz, mica and feldspar. Also, granite is an impermeable rock.
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What is an escarpement?
An escarpement is an outcrop of chalk made up of a steep scarp slope and a more gentle dip slope.
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What are swallow holes?
Swallow holes happen when a stream dissolves a joint and then flows down it rather than over the ground. The hole 'swallows' the stream. An example of a swallow hole is Gaping Gill near Ingleborough.
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What are dry valleys?
Dry valleys are old river valleys. When there was a lot of water around, and the ground was saturated after the last ice age, the rivers flowed over the surface and made these valleys. Now the ground isn't saturated, there is no surface water present
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How are caves formed?
Caves happen when an underground stream dissolves an underground hole. Inside, the dripping water deposits pure limestone in hanging stalactites and standing stalagmites.
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How are gorges formed?
If a cave system collapses, it leaves a stream in the bottom of a steep-sided narrow gorge like Trow Gill gorge near Clapham.
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How are limestone pavements?
These are areas where the limestone is exposed. The joints are weathered by solution and this leaves a pattern of dips (enlarged joints called grykes) and flat surfaces called (clints). This looks like a pavement. For example, there is one at Malham.
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What are dolines and how are they formed?
Dolines are hollows in the limestone that don't have a stream going into them. They are formed either by water dissolving the limestone near the surface or by a cave collapsing. There are a lot of them just north of Malham.
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What are the negative features of tourism in Dartmoor?
In Dartmoor, there are too many polluting cars due to the 8 million visitors a year. This causes congestion in small villages as well as noise pollution and a lack of car parking. The visitors cause footpath erosion and conflicts with locals.
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What are the five stages of quarrying?
1. Preparing the site. 2. Extracting the rock. 3.Treating the rock. 4. Transporting the rock. 5. Cleaning up the site.
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How was the quarry at Cotswold restored?
The quarry is not a water park called Cotswold Water Park. An example of restoration is the shaping and lining of "bumpy bottoms and crinkly edges". These make great habits for aquatic life. Reeds have been planted to soften the profile of the area.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the characteristics of igneous rocks?

Back

Igneous rocks are composed of interlocking crystals (they are said to be crystalline). They are generally tough rocks which are resistant to erosion.

Card 3

Front

Give examples of igneous rocks.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the characteristics of sedimentary rocks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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